Business Development Startup

8 Major Legal Risks Faced by Startups

Startups are not as fancy as they look’

Startups can be a rollercoaster ride for entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs encounter many risks in their journey of Startups but the legal risks are something that can not be avoided and should be taken seriously. Here, we are trying to get an overview of the legal risks that are faced by Startups.

The Startup word itself looks very appealing. And for the millennials, it is a way to get the life of their dreams but the amount of hard work, patience and planning one has to put in is the key factor. Besides, the challenges and risks which one should be aware of.

As the millennial generation is much more attracted to the startups but Startups can look fancy from far. But when a person actually puts in the hard work then he/she understands the practicality, uncertainty, and the risk involved. The risks can be a financial risk, legal risks and many more but here we are only focusing on Legal risks that are faced by Startups. These risks can be eliminated with proper strategy and planning. And if proper actions are taken the risk can be reduced if not properly eliminated.

Let’s find the Major legal difficulties faced by Startups.

1. Proper Documentation

The first and foremost thing for any startup is to have documents in an organized manner. If you decide to do a venture, the documents, and other formalities are not properly done then your startup will become null and void.

For instance during an agreement you are unable to present complete documents then you are liable to pay the penalties which is not good for your business.

2. Legal composition of Business

This is a vital risk that should be avoided to run a business and the foremost thing to be stressed upon. The composition or ownership of any business is very important. The tax responsibility of any firm and the personal liability of the owner can be done with ease with the legal funding options. It will help in saving the tax and personal interests of the owners.

3. No forgery of website T&C (Terms and Conditions)

For any online business or E-commerce, it is essential to have terms and conditions posted on the website as per many countries laws. There are many agencies like The ACCC ( Australian Competition and consumer protection) works for the public welfare. The ACCC believes in Transparency, accountability, Confidentiality, Proportionality. And there should not be plagiarism meaning no business can copy another company’s T&C. Plagiarism of terms and conditions is much worse than not having at all. If this happens then it may cause a legal risk that will negatively affect the business.

4. Legitimate Licenses

Every business has some legal rules and regulations. And to do the business hassle-free there are some permits and licenses that should be taken by the owner. And that too a real license if the license is not legitimate, then the owner is in a position to pay a hefty amount which may cause losses to the startup.  So to avoid this type of legal risk owner should consider the appropriate professionals who have a clear view of the types of licenses and permits which should be taken to run the company successfully.

5. Disputes and Discrimination

In any organization, disputes among the staff are quite normal but disputes caused by partners, stakeholders, and customers. These disputes will take up a bad face and the consequences have to bear by the business which is also a legal risk.

Discrimination by age, color, or gender is a growing problem in organizations. But the law says “if any worker who feels that he/she is being dominated by anybody can give an application to the Fair work Commission for resolution of the situation”. This anti-discrimination law is to make a fair decision in favor of the workers who are been bullied by higher authority. That also becomes a legal dispute and the authorities should keep that in mind to avoid this type of situation by listening to the problems of workers and bring a solution in a fair and impartial way.

6. Accidents in the workplace

Sometimes workers, work in a workplace and met with an accident that can cause grievance injury to them. They can file a legal case against the company or can ask for compensation which is a legal risk for the firm. So to avoid or lessen this type of situation a company must have a safety team and system who will keep a check on both the workers as well as the machines.

7. Protect Intellectual property rights

Intellectual property rights are those rights which can be taken for newly invented thing discovered by you. and these rights will shield your discovery. The discovery can be a product, a brand name, a logo, a recipe anything. So the copyright is to be used to get the right or ownership of any content to safeguard your work and prevent it from copying or stealing. This is also a legal risk and to prevent this make sure you patent and secure your product so no one can copy it.

8. No agreement of shareholder

A shareholders agreement should essentially be the cornerstone of any business or startup venture between founders and partners. There must be proper documentation of the agreement of shareholders to avoid the conflict between the partners. 

Furthermore, a shareholder’s agreement acts as a protection between partners, if problematic situations arise and it is seen to be more efficient as co-founders will spend less time debating, arguing and litigating when in difficult situations as they have the agreement to refer back to.

Ignoring the need for a shareholders agreement creates a larger risk because as with any business, problems may arise between the partners especially in startups and it is necessary to have a balance and clues to those situations to act as an effective guidance mechanism on what to do in those circumstances.

Let’s take a case study which will clear everything about the legal risks

In 2014, a developer developed an app that is a quiz app and inference has been taken from an app that is developed by Cambridge Analytica. The name of the developer is Aleksandr Kogan. He got 27000 installations to his app from users. He could manage to access the data of his friends and when the app asked for grant permissions that app saved all the information. This information created 30 million psychographic voters profile. And Trump tie-ups were already in Cambridge Analytica and this information was used to target ads for a campaign like Brexit.  As news spread in the market facebook share instantly fell to 18% in 10 days and people in aggression start #deletefacebook movement. So this case study shows that if legal professionals saw that earlier then this situation can be avoided.


In a journey of startups, Entrepreneurs must look into the legal risks that may pose some threat to company issues. Or they can personally hire legal professionals who will look into this matter closely. These professionals will tell the precautions that should be taken to avoid these risks. And there is no doubt that any startup will lead to millennials are keen towards the startups. So these types of hurdles should not create any problem and must be eliminated so that a business can run smoothly.


Getting To Know About Artifical Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is the imitation of human intelligence processes by machines specifically computer systems. Artificial intelligence came into the picture in mid-1955 by John McCarthy at the Dartmouth conference. John McCarthy and his team members proposed their work on artificial intelligence and a year later in 1956, and the name was attributed to McCarthy.

Artificial Intelligence is mounted over the years and today if we look around we are surrounded by the same. From Alexa to google assistant, artificial intelligence made our life much easier than it used to be earlier.

A Little Background About Artificial Intelligence

Around 1950 Alan Turing published ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’ which gave the proposal of simulation Game – an idea which says, can machines think? And this idea is named as Turing Test. In 1959 a person Samuel brought out the word Machine learning which clarifies that a person who develops the program may lose a game to the program itself. The program is capable to win against the creator of their existence. Artificial intelligence focuses on learning, Reasoning, decision making, and the Turing test checks the consciousness and decision-making ability in machines.

Types of Artificial Intelligence

AI basically has two categories, one is narrow or weak AI and the other is strong or general AI. Let’s know a little more about these two.

Narrow or Weak Artificial Intelligence

AI has a purpose to act very smartly on a narrow task. AI is used for narrow purposes like face recognition feature or finger-print sensor. For instance, Siri, Google Assistant, Alexa.

Strong or General  Artificial Intelligence

Strong AI is no less than a human mind and can work as the real human mind does. General  AI is capable of doing every task by thinking like a human. For instance, Sophia – the human-robot was discovered by Hongkong, thinks like a human being.

Super Artificial intelligence

Super strong AI means which is beyond the thinking of human which means a machine can do something which a human can not even think of. For instance, VIKI is a supercomputer developed by USR – a robotic company. VIKI means Virtual Interactive Kinetic Intelligence and Viki is an extremely efficient supercomputer. The latest development is that a company named Hanson Robotics created a humanoid that looks exactly like a human being and the name of that robot is Sophia. Sophia is able to recognize facial expressions and voice and can even communicate through artificial superintelligence.

Scope of Artificial Intelligence

Natural Language Generation

Natural language Generation(NLG) is basically a process that converts data into written language. Its main purpose is to generate content from the data without human guidance. There are many instances where NLG can be used, it can generate business reports based on a dataset. As we know, ECommerce is at its peak and everybody wants different and attractive things. With the help of NLG, it can create landing page content and a description of the product as well.

Writing reports manually can be a laborious task for the analysts. Natural language generation, the analysts are able to know clearly without wastage of time. NLG can automate the process with proper insights on the dashboard and speaking to every person on the dashboard. In other words, Natural language generation is an efficient way that would help the analysts by eliminating the workload.

In Self-driving Cars

Artificial intelligence can work more efficiently than humans do. Elon Musk owner of the tesla group invented self-driving cars that are dependent on artificial intelligence. According to the latest report, he said that in the near future, there will be cars which are level 5 autonomy with no geofence which means that level 5 cars can drive anywhere in this world with no limitations.


Chatbots are recently used by every online platform to take an overview and resolve the queries of the client and give them the best services.

Sectors of Artificial Intelligence


Manufacturing sectors spent $2 billion on intelligence ideally because the machines work so efficiently with minimum wastage of resources that keep the companies up in the game. Be it is virtual reality or nanotechnology they always try to keep up the game by investing in this technology.


By the Year 2030, Education is going to be in a different place than it is now, earlier people have to go to get their education at different places like educational institutions, but today there is a lot of quality education available on the online platforms. From personalized classrooms to satellite coaching its all because of intelligent solutions. Education is evolved throughout the years and AI has a great role in providing the best of quality to the potential students and those who are studying can have access to all the content that is widely available in the market.


The health sector also spends about $1.7 billion every year on intelligence solutions.  There are so many machines that can diagnose any disease in a span of minutes which helps in saving the lives of so many people.


The tourism sector gets a boom by introducing artificial intelligence and the use of chatbots and travel assistance is quite common in use. Tourism had always been an important part of the economy but lately, it has been the most talked topic. Like there are so many travel bloggers who are promoting tourism and artificial intelligence played an important part.  According to a report by Travelzoo, 80%  of travel assistants will be robots by 2020.


The tech giants like Apple, Google, IBM Watson are the main leads in artificial intelligence. Elon musk said the self- driving cars are likely to lessen the accidents and a revolution for this era. These Marketers have launched their virtual assistants like Google Assistant, Siri and the latest one which is loved by everyone Alexa. It is so easy for people to work by voice recognition feature by using neural networks to analyze the language and follow the command.


The crime rates on the online platforms are increasing rigorously be it a transaction of money or online abusing or bullying. Trolling these days are quite common. And in monetary terms, the datasheet hacked and the personal documents of the firms are leaked so artificial intelligence plays the part by giving security to the firms. IT solutions spent a ton of money just for the security of the datasheets and important documents that are confidential.

This is also predicted that Artificial intelligence will help in employment generation and it will lead to 50% more employment opportunities by 2030.

Artificial intelligence is here to rule the world by giving immense comfort to the people by their intelligence solutions.

Development Frontend Developers

Top 10 App Designing Tools For Developers

According to a survey, the average person in the US spends approximately 5 hours staring at their smart devices. Whether they do message, posting photographs or gaming in the world we live in, people are constantly using apps.
This massive popularity comes with massive competition. The world where we can say apps grow on the tree, competition is good it keeps the app designers on their toes and makes everything a little bit better.

“Design can be art. Design can be aesthetics. Design is so simple, that’s why it is so complicated.”

Paul Rand

Beautiful interfaces, striking simplicity, and easy navigation are 3 of the most important traits in an app that can set you apart from the competition. But how do you create a great app design?
Here are the steps you need to follow in order to design an app that is sure to be a winner.

  • Set the goal of your app
  • Make a plan
  • Research your niche and competitors
  • Create a wireframe
  • Get your app designed
  • Collect feedback on your design
  • Get your app developed
  • Test your app with a focus group
  • Launch a beta version
  • Launch your app

“Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.”

Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple, Inc.

But how will you do all this? There are many app design tools that help you sketch your app wireframes, create prototypes, and bring them to life. We are listing here top app designing tools that are essential to your app designing process to take your app to the next level.

1. Sketch

“Find Your Focus”

Sketch is primarily used for designing UI and UX of mobile apps and web. The files designed in sketch are saved with its own extension .sketch file format. You can also save these images in popular extensions like PNG, JPG, TIFF, WebP, etc. The design created in Sketch is utilized by app engineers to design mobile apps and by website developers, to design websites.

With Sketch, digital artists can apply any modifications to their image and still revert to the original or previous iteration when they need to. Sketch is not limited to its own functions, it enables designers to further refine or use their creations in other applications by letting them export codes and presets.

Sketch comes with Symbols, It’s a feature that allows users to create icons, avatars, and other design elements and save them for future use. So they do not have to repeatedly create these elements on other sections of their design and still customize them as they wish.

  • Developer: Bohemian Coding
  • Founded: 2010
  • Platforms: macOS
  • Users: Apple, Facebook, Google, Stripe, Nintendo, and more
  • Integrations: Jira Cloud, Zeplin, Avocode, WeTransfer, and more
  • Pricing: Plans start at $99 per year

2. InVision

“Design Better. Faster. Together”

InVision is a prototyping tool. It’s quickly and easily create interactive mockups for your designs. You can also share these mockups with your team or clients and it is much more effective than sending out a .PDF or screenshots.

When you upload your screens, it presents them in like an actual web browsing experience. That means you have control over how others see your designs. InVision is meant to be a stand-alone design presentation app, all progress from start to finish can be done inside this app. You can build out a very nice way to give and receive feedback. With comments and notes, you can set a point on the screen that you’d like to discuss, and leave a comment linked to that point.

This tool also supports mobile prototyping, Just like you can do with desktop versions. You can create hotspot links for all of your screens and can control mobile gestures and transitions that occur.

  • Founded: 2011
  • Platform: macOS
  • Users: Airbnb, Amazon, HBO, Lyft, and more
  • Integrations: Jira, Trello, Slack, and more
  • Pricing: Free

3. Adobe XD

“Design already ahead of its time”

Adobe XD developed and published by Adobe Inc. XD is a vector-based user experience design tool for web apps and mobile apps, available for macOS and Windows. There are versions for iOS and Android as well that help to preview the result of work directly on mobile devices. XD also support website wireframing and creating simple interactive click-through prototypes. With the character and layout tools of Adobe XD, Elements can be easily created and the individual objects can be exported.

XD is a lot more intuitive and easier to use than other Adobe applications. This facilitates a great introduction and creates a good user experience right from the start. The Adobe Design Library Manager makes the workflow of creating design assets seamless.

The beauty of Adobe XD is its learning curve that is light and occurs mostly around a more complex design system and symbol overrides. XD handles complex design systems and symbol libraries. It also features intuitive tools for easily connecting screens and creating interactive prototypes that can be utilized in user testing without the need for code. Its auto-animate function makes prototyping rich interactions even easier by automatically animating micro-interactions.

  • Developer: Adobe Systems
  • Founded: 2016
  • Platform: Windows, macOS, iOS, and Android
  • Integrations: Jira, Slack, Zeplin, Avocode, and more
  • Pricing: Free. Paid plans start at $9.99 per month.

4. Marvel

“The all-in-one platform powering design”

It is a simpler, friendlier alternative of the InVision App. Marvel app creates prototyping tools that work for both advanced UX designers and those who simply looking to communicate high and low fidelity concepts. They also offer component libraries to allow for a complete online workflow in Marvel.

Marvel App also recently integrated fan-favorite POP, which allows designers to transform their basic ideas into iPhone and Android apps.

  • Founded: 2013
  • Platform: Web
  • Users: Buzzfeed, IBM, Stripe, Deliveroo, and more
  • Integrations: Jira, Dropbox, Slack, Sketch, and more
  • Pricing: Free. Paid plans start at $12 per month.

5. Figma

“Turn Ideas Into Products Faster”

Figma is a cloud-based design tool quite similar to Sketch in the matter of functionality and features. But Figma is much better for team collaboration than Sketch. Figma works on any platform that runs a web browser. Macs, Windows PCs, Linux machines, and even Chromebooks can be used with Figma.

In many organizations, designers use Macs and developers use Windows PCs. Figma helps bring both groups together. Figma also prevents the annoyance of PNG-pong. There is no need for a mediating mechanism to make the design work available to everyone.

  • Founded: 2012
  • Platform: Web
  • Users: Microsoft, Uber, Slack, Braintree and more
  • Integrations: Jira, Trello, Slack, Zeplin, and more
  • Pricing: Free. Paid plans start at $12 per editor per month.


“Prototypes That Feel Real”

There are many options available for prototyping mobile user experiences, but if you need to prototype native apps for mobile devices will be the best fit for you. has many features for designing and prototyping mobile apps, including built-in component libraries for specific devices. It provides great support for gestures and transitions, and an app that allows for easy viewing on actual hardware.

But the thing to know is that unlike most prototyping tools, is a web application, so you’ll need an internet connection to do your work. This is a drawback compared to other options.

  • Developer: Labs Division of SNQ Digital
  • Founded: 2011
  • Platform: Web
  • Users: PayPal, Disney, ESPN, Amazon, and more
  • Integrations: Dropbox, Photoshop, Sketch, and Lookback
  • Pricing: Plans start at $24 per month

7. Axure

“Design The Right Solution”

Axure is a prototyping/wireframing tool used by UX designers. It is a quick way to make highly interactive prototypes that are viewable on the web, on desktop and on tablets and mobile devices. You can also use it to create user flows and site maps. It is a great way to create a visual, interactive presentation of your design ideas to communicate them to your client/boss or to a development team.

The user interface of Axure uses a drag & drop surface and an extensive library of widgets that cover almost every element of the web applications. From text fields to drop lists and interactive forms, the variety is truly outstanding and enables users to create wireframes completely to their own requirements.

  • Founded: 2003
  • Platform: Windows, macOS
  • Users: Apple, Amazon, IBM, eBay, Microsoft, and more
  • Integrations: Slack and Hipchat
  • Pricing: Plans start at $29 per user per month

8. Framer

“Design Digital Products Better”

You can use Framer for simple transitions and rapid prototyping as well as for creating microinteractions and advanced animations. It gives you the ultimate power to create interactions without any limitations imposed by a graphic user interface and predefined tools.

Framer is one of the most designer-friendly approaches to coding out there. And while prototypes are never made with production-ready-code, the programmer will still get the benefit and be able to use some information from your code.

  • Founded: 2014
  • Platform: macOS
  • Users: Dropbox, Pinterest, Twitter, Disney, and more.
  • Integrations: Fiber
  • Pricing: Plans start at $12 per month.

9. Fluid UI

“Create Web and Mobile Prototypes in Minutes”

Fluid UI is an HTML5 mobile interface prototyping tool that helps user interface designers to rapidly create prototypes by arranging pre-built widgets into a drag and drop editor during the requirements stage of app development. It enables iteration and collaboration between users and clients.

  • Founded: 2010
  • Platform: Windows, Linux, macOS, Web
  • Users: Xerox, Oracle, Samsung, Siemens, and more
  • Pricing: Free. Plans start at $8.25 per month.

10. Justinmind

All-in-one prototyping tool for web and mobile apps

Justinmind is a prototyping tool for creating high-quality work. You can download this tool on your computer for offline work anywhere. It allows you to export your prototype to a fully functional HTML document and make it readily available to view in any web browser.

It creates wireframes for websites and web apps that adapt to multiple screen resolutions for desktop and mobile. Justinmind offers access to the use of items from UI libraries and downloads numerous add-ons.

  • Founded: 2007
  • Platform: Windows, macOS
  • Users: Digitas Health, Tieto, Ink Cloud Group, and more
  • Integrations: Sketch, Adobe, Jira, and more
  • Pricing: Free. Paid plans start at $19 per user per month.
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Adobe XD vs Sketch- Designer’s First Choice?

” Design at the speed of light “

Adobe XD’s tagline says it all. XD is made for designers, creative teams and organizations that need to design at scale. It’s everything( Wireframe, design, prototype, present and share amazing experiences for web, mobile, voice etc) you need to work more efficiently, collaborate effortlessly, and create and manage your design system.

“The best products start with Sketch”

Sketch offers you to create, prototype, collaborate and turn your ideas into incredible products with the definitive platform for digital design. With sketch’s smart Layout you can create responsive, reusable components that automatically resize to fit your content.

UI/UX designers were and are highly in demand, 2019 is no exception. So which tool designers prefer for enhancing their designing? we will conclude it with a healthy comparison. Let see which one is the most prominent tool among the two of them. Yes, we are talking about Adobe XD and Sketch, both have immensely contributed to delivering the ultimate user experience. Though they both have the same objectives but have different ways. Let’s shed some light on how differently they work and which one is the designer’s first choice.

Adobe XD ( Adobe Experience Design)

“Adobe XD” developed and published by Adobe Inc. XD is a vector-based user experience design tool for web apps and mobile apps, available for macOS and Windows. There are versions for iOS and Android as well that help to preview the result of work directly on mobile devices. XD also support website wireframing and creating simple interactive click-through prototypes. With the character and layout tools of Adobe XD, Elements can be easily created and the individual objects can be exported.

Note:- A beta of Adobe XD was released for Windows 10 on December 13, 2016. On October 18, 2017, Adobe announced that Adobe XD was out of beta.

XD is a lot more intuitive and easier to use than other Adobe applications. This facilitates a great introduction and creates a good user experience right from the start. The Adobe Design Library Manager makes the workflow of creating design assets seamless.

Adobe XD: Most Liked Features

“Through integrations with Creative Cloud we can make our customers happier and more productive by connecting them seamlessly to all the services they use, and an endless supply of tools that extend our applications in powerful and custom ways.”

-Vijay Vachani, Director, Head of Partner Platform & Ecosystem, Adobe Creative Cloud.

The beauty of Adobe XD is its learning curve that is light and occurs mostly around a more complex design system and symbol overrides. XD handles complex design systems and symbol libraries. It also features intuitive tools for easily connecting screens and creating interactive prototypes that can be utilized in user testing without the need for code. Its auto-animate function makes prototyping rich interactions even easier by automatically animating micro-interactions.

“Adobe XD benefits include the wide-availability of plugins and add-ons.”

The Interface

The interface is kept relatively simple and looks a bit like Sketch, with the toolbar that is aligned at the side, as well as the large artboard area.

Testing On Mobile Devices

With Adobe Experience Design, Interactive designs can also be displayed on a smartphone or tablet. You can view the prototype on different devices and easily share it with your team and customers.

Designing With The Repeat Grid

Elements can be selected and repeated as needed using the new repeat grid. The changes are applied to all areas.

New Animations

With Adobe XD, you can experiment with new types of transitions on the design. The two options are “no transitions” or “move into“.

Quick Drag & Drop

Here you can insert pictures directly from the Finder by simply drag and drop. Xd will automatically create an image mask. Pictures can also be imported comfortably via copy and paste. This also works for vector graphics and can be edited in Adobe XD as well.

Overview of Adobe XD Benefits

Target Audience

You can immediately notice that the product is indeed intended for interface designers. For example, the Repeat Grid tool is amazing, it allows you to create content grids such as post lists, inventory catalogs, and user tables, very quickly.


XD is fully integrated with other Adobe’s products, so you can quickly copy assets from photoshop or illustrator and then paste them into Experience Design.

Content Recognition

It feels like XD recognizes the type of content you are trying to drag-and-drop in it. For instance, if you drag-and-drop an image from Finder on to the required object in Experience Design, the app will automatically make an image mask for this object.

Prototype Mode

“The auto-animation tool used in an Adobe XD prototype”

You can notice that connecting screens is done much easier in XD than in InvisionApp. With Invision you are forced to choose them from long lists. You can also set parameters for each transition between screens to define its type, duration, and dynamics.

Prototype preview

XD allows sharing prototypes by uploading them to Adobe servers so that you could then get a link and send it to, say, a client for demonstration.

Adobe XD: Flaws

  • Lack of layer panel
    In XD if your screens are overloaded with elements, you may find it hard to reorganize existing objects.

  • Limited tools for creating new graphics
    It doesn’t look that important after considering the fact that you can import existing assets from Photoshop and illustrator.

  • Absence of styles and symbols
    These are highly effective in Sketch.

  • Low layer effects
    You will barely find any layer effects Drop Shadow. Which again is a minus if compared to sketch.

Adobe XD: Price

Adobe XD is a part of the Adobe Creative Cloud subscription, which gives you access to over 20 apps like photoshop, Illustrator, Premiere Pro, etc for $ 50 per month. It’s hard to separate the price specifically for that product. In May 2018 Adobe announced a starter plan that allows the use of Adobe XD for free. It’s limited to only one active project.

Note:- During the Adobe MAX conference, there were several important announcements around plugins, UI kits, and app integrations to expand Adobe XD’s utility. $10 million Design Fund for this exact purpose proves the importance of supporting plugins and incentivizing developers to create them. 

Designers working with a variety of companies and on different projects will most likely need a spectrum of problem-solving skills. A broader design toolbox can be a big advantage. Adobe XD is fast, free, and easy to learn. There is nothing lost in taking the plunge and expanding your versatility.

Sketch ( The Digital Design Toolkit)

Sketch is primarily used for designing UI and UX of mobile apps and web. The files designed in sketch are saved with its own extension .sketch file format. You can also save these images in popular extensions like PNG, JPG, TIFF, WebP, etc. The designs created in Sketch are utilized by app engineers to design mobile apps and by websites developers, to design websites.

“The idea of the founder was to produce a simple drawing application to support his income while studying, which became widely adopted by designers.”

Sketch was previously sold through the app store but in December 2015 developers pulled the app from the store and instead sold it through their own website. On 8 June 2016, Bohemian coding announced on their blog that they were switching to a new licensing system for Sketch.

Sketch: Most liked Features

Non Destructive Editing

There were days when an image is destroyed for good once a change is made to the original data. With Sketch, digital artists can apply any modifications to their image and still revert to the original or previous iteration when they need to.

Exporting Feature

Sketch is not limited to its own functions, it enables designers to further refine or use their creations in other applications by letting them export codes and presets.

Grids & Guides

The designer can be particular with object alignment. This is why the application comes with grids and guides that lets users place and move objects around with precision.

Reusable Elements

Sketch comes with Symbols, It’s a feature that allows users to create icons, avatars, and other design elements and save them for future use. So they do not have to repeatedly create these elements on other sections of their design and still customize them as they wish.

Collaborative Platform

Sketch allows for the collaboration of teammates. It does this with its Libraries, where designers can share their symbols and use the elements uploaded by others for their own tasks. It allows everyone to stay updated regarding the progress of projects.

Community Support

With Sketch, users can do away with long emails and delayed support. They can easily post their concerns on Sketch Cloud and receive immediate feedback regarding their concern.

Overview of Sketch Benefits

via Codersera

Simple Yet Effective

One of the greatest benefits of Sketch is its simplicity, it is easy to use and easy to pick up the basics. Its refreshing just how it is to navigate even for newcomers.

Powerful Tool

Powerful and effective tool for general layout and vector drawing. So it’s a relief to have something like Sketch to not only save time, but also stress and, most importantly, money.

Multiple- Resolution Assets

Sharing and exporting multiple-resolution assets is incredibly simple. The ability to re-use elements with ease, again and again, means that you can save hours of your working time as a designer.


Superb integration with other apps and plugins. Sketch isn’t a standalone app that requires extensive procedures to bring all your work together, it facilitates almost seamless integration with the likes of Principle, Framer, and Marvel.


Layouts and vector drawings are as powerful and simple as they should be, so it’s a pleasure to get stuck into, even if you want to spend more time experimenting.


It’s a wonder Sketch is so cheap at a one-off payment of $99 (including free updates for a year). It’s certainly saved me more than that on my projects.

Sketch: Flaws

  • Quite buggy:-
    Sketch does have its downfalls. One of the most infuriating is its susceptibility to bugs and glitches.

  • Unexpected Crashes:-
    Even after updating to the latest version, you will experience unexpected crashes with the app and its associated plugins.

  • It’s Mac-only:-
    At the moment, it’s only developed and updated exclusively for Mac users.

  • Difficult to use with a Wacom tablet:-
    It’d also be great to see it expand its reach and usability on the Wacom tablet, too. It’s currently quite difficult to use due to the panning issues and generally convoluted experience.

Sketch: Price

Sketch offers a single enterprise pricing plan for all users. Here are the details:

Mac- $99/one-time payment

  • One Year Free Updates
  • Mirror App
  • One Year Free Sketch Cloud
  • License Management

Licenses are renewable and extendable to accommodate more users. Students, teachers, and staff can avail of a 50% discount. Academic institutions can acquire the application at no cost.

Adobe XD vs Sketch: Designers Preference?

Designers these days are expected to have a mix of both creativity and digitization, in their designs. The designer can achieve this objective with good design tool. Staying with UX and UI design, we have seen Adobe XD and Sketch grow up as the most preferred though Adobe XD is relatively new while UX sketch has been around for a while.

  • When compared to Sketch, Ui designer may not find too many changes in the first look of Adobe XD.

  • Adobe did not adopt the darker buttons and menus, Adobe comes with taller layer panels and properties, to the right side of screens, as seen in Sketch.

  • Adobe is considered to have a slightly more user-friendly approach and is quite easy to learn and understand.

  • Repeat Grid is one of the unique features of Adobe XD, This feature saves a lot of time for the designers when you have to design pages or screens with lists of repeating elements.

  • Adobe provides the facility for generating interactive prototypes through its vector drawing ability which can be easily shared across the web. However, Sketch would require the services of plugins to perform this activity.

  • Adobe included the Assets panel, a way to bring together an interactive style guide with colors, character styles, and symbols. Sketch also has a color variables, characters styles, and symbols, and everything, but each one contained in their own panel.

  • Responsive Design, a highlight feature of Adobe XD is soon to be introduced feature in Sketch, for a native app.

  • Both Sketch and Adobe XD support common file extensions while exporting and importing files. Comparatively, Adobe XD supports files with extensions PNG, SVG, and PDF while exporting files and JPG, GIF, PNG, TIFF, and SVG, while importing files.

  • Both Sketch, as well as Adobe XD, extends offline support to designers.

  • Supportive tools like Sketch and Adobe XD also support the use of symbols. While Sketch supports the use of reusable symbols with responsive resizing, Adobe XD supports only basic symbols with no responsive resizing facility.

  • While Sketch works well only on MAC Platforms, Adobe XD works fine with MAC as well as Windows 10 platforms.

The goal of a designer is to listen, observe, understand, sympathize, empathize, synthesize, and glean insights that enable him or her to ‘make the invisible visible.

Hillman Curtis
Business Development Resume

24 Git Interview Questions For Developers

Git is a very popular version control tool in the software community. Almost every fortune 500+ organizations use Git. This contains basic to expert level Git interview questions that an interviewer definitely asks. These questionnaires will help to prepare for a job interview in a short time.

Often, these questions and concepts are used in everyday programming. But these are most helpful when an Interviewer is trying to test your deep knowledge of Git version control.

Basics: Every Developer Should Know

Original author (Developer) Linus Torvalds
Released on 7 April 2005
Stable release 2.23.0 / 16 August 2019
Languages used in C, Shell, Perl, Tcl, Python
Operating system Windows, Linux, macOS
Type Version control

Git is a Distributed Version Control System (DVCS) as well as it is a Source Code Management System (SCMS) which is used as a track that changes the file also allows to revert back to any particular change.

Git uses ” C “ programming language which ensures that the overhead of runtimes associated with high-level languages that reduced and make it fast. Also, it is open-source software distributed under the terms of the GNU ( General Public License ).

Q1. Classify the version control system and its types?

Version Control System is the process management system that maintains the change records in the file or set of files over a period of time. And every change is maintained as a version. It is also called Revision control systems.

Features of VCS are:

  • The version control system includes the tag system which helps to differentiate between alpha, beta, or various release versions for different documents.
  • Up to date history is available for the document and file types.
  • It doesn’t require any other repository system and it can be cloned as per the need and availability.

There are 3 types of the version control system are:

  • Local Version Control System

It maintains the track of files within the local system and its approaches is very basic and mild. This type is also error-prone which means that the chances of accidentally writing to the wrong file is high.

  • Centralized Version Control Systems

In CVCS, all the changes in the files are tracked under the centralized server. It includes all the information of versioned files and a list of clients that check out files from that central place.

  • Distributed Version Control System

This approach comes into the picture to overcome the drawback of the centralized version control system. The clients were able to completely clone the repository including its full history. If any server is not working properly the client repositories can be copied on to the server which helps to restore the files.

Q2. What are the advantages of using Git?

Answer. Advantages of using Git:

  • Free and open-source
  • Fast and small
  • Secure
  • Implicit backup
  • Easier branching
  • No need for powerful hardware

Q3. Name a few Git repository hosting services.

Answer. There are three main popular Git repository services-

  1. GitLab
  2. GitHub
  3. Bitbucket

Q4. What is the Git life cycle?

The files in the Git project have various stages like creation, Modification, Refactoring, and Deletion and so on. Irrespective of whether this project is tracked by Git or not, these phases are still prevalent. However, when a project is under Git version control system, they are present in three major Git states in addition to these basic ones. Here are the three Git states:

  • Working directory 
  • Staging area 
  • Git directory 

These stages are the essence of Git. You get great flexibility in tracking the files due to these stages that files can reside in under Git. 

Working Directory

  • It considers a project residing in your local system, this project may or may not be tracked by Git. In this case, the project directory is called as your working directory.
  • Let’s assume that this directory is now tracked by Git. That is we’ve created a Git repository in this existing project directory, a hidden .git folder is initialized therein. In this state, Git is just aware of the files in the project. It won’t track the files yet. To track the files, you’ve to commit these files by first adding the files to the staging area.

This brings you to the next state in Git life-cycle.

Staging Area

  • While you’re in the working directory, you select the files that have to be tracked by Git. Why do you need this? Why don’t you track everything in the project? That’s because some files in the project like class files, log files, result files and temporary data files are dynamically generated. 
  • It doesn’t make sense to track the versions of these files. Whereas the source code files, data files, configuration files, and other project artifacts contain the business logic of the application. These files are to be tracked by Git are thus needs to be added to the staging area.

In other words, the staging area is the playground where you group, add and organize the files to be committed to Git for tracking their versions. 

  • It’s important to make a quick note of the term called indexing here. Indexing is the process of adding files to the staging area. In other words, index constitutes of files added to the staging area. This term will be explained again in the coming tutorial on Git terminologies. 

Git Directory

  • Now that the files to be committed are grouped and ready in the staging area, you can commit these files. So, you commit the group of files along with a commit message explaining what is the about. Apart from the commit message, this step also records the author and time of the commit.
  • Now, a snapshot of the files in the commit is recorded by Git. The information related to this commit (names of files committed, date and time of commit, author of commit, commit message) is stored in the Git directory. 

Thus, the Git directory is the database where metadata about project files’ history will be tracked. 

Q5. What do you understand by Git protocol?

Answer. Git protocol is a mechanism for transferring data in Git. But Git protocol does not support any authentication. So on plus side, this is a very fast network transfer protocol. But it lacks authentication.

Git can communicate using four protocols-

  1. Local,
  2. HTTP,
  3. Secure Shell, and
  4. Git.
  • Local protocol uses when the remote repository is on the same disk but in a different directory and is generally used in cases where users share a common filesystem. The file-based repositories are easy to set up but not the easiest to set up when you want users to be able to work remotely.
  • Secure Shell (SSH) is an authenticated protocol which comes with the advantage of being easy to set up, efficient read and write. It is easy to set up, and the connection is secure as the data transfer is encrypted.
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol(HTTP)/ HyperText Transfer Protocol Secured (HTTPS) is probably the simplest protocols to set up. It is also not resource-intensive for the server. Once the repository is placed under a web server, all the users who can access the server have access to the repository. However, there will be a considerable amount of network overhead, and cloning might take longer.
  • Git protocol is available with Git and is one of the fastest protocols. However, it lacks robust authentication features and is generally suitable to offer read-only access to public projects. It is not uncommon to pair it with SSH for specific users who need to write access. It listens on a dedicated port 9418 which provides services similar to the SSH protocol

Q6. What is “git commit -a”?

“git commit -a” is used to write a commit message in Git. The -a is to instruct the git to commit the new content of all tracked files that have been modified.

If any new file needs to be committed for the first time, “git add<file>” is used before git commit.

Q7. Define conflict in git? How you can solve a conflict in git?

Answer. A conflict in Git arises when the commit that needs to be merged in one file, and also the current commit has changed in the same place in that file. And in this case, It is not able to predict which change should take precedence.

For solving any conflict in Git, we need to edit the files for fixing the conflicting changes and then we need to run git add command to add the resolved files.

After that git commit command that needs to be run to commit the repaired merge.

Q8. What are the advantages of git over SVN?

The differences between Git and SVN are:

Git is a decentralized version control tool.SVN is a centralized version control tool.
The entire repository can be cloned
on the local system.
Version history is stored on a server-side
Commits are possible even if offline. Only online commits are allowed.
The work is shared automatically on commit.The work is not shared automatically.
Push/Pull operations are faster in Git Operations are slow.

Q9. Why a developer need branching in git? How to create a new branch in git?

Answer. Branching is used to create a new own branch till some commits and then can easily switch between those branches. Git allows the developers to have multiple local branches that can be entirely independent of each other. This will definitely help the developers to go to their previous work keeping the recent work intact.

Use the following command to create a new branch in GIT:
$/> git checkout –b <branchname>

Q10. Difference between “git merge” and git rebase”? And when do you use git rebase instead of git merge?

Answer. Rebasing and merging are the two most popular ways of applying changes from one branch into another one. They both give similar results at the end but work differently.

In Git, the rebase command integrates changes from one branch into another. As well as it is an alternative to the better-known merge command. Most visibly rebase differs from merge by rewriting the commit’s history, in order to produce a straight, linear succession of commits.

Merging is the way of putting forked history back again. The Git merge command to let the developers take the independent lines of development created by the Git branch and integrate them into a single branch.

With rebase you say to use another branch as the new base for your work.

when to use git rebase instead of git merge:

  1. If you have any doubt, use Git merge.
  2. The choice for Git rebase or merge based on what you want your history to look like.

Q11. Suppose you have to remove a file from git without removing it from your file system. How can you do it?

Answer. Syntax:

git reset filename          # or
 echo filename >> .gitingore # add it to .gitignore to avoid re-adding it

Q12. Explain the git-flow workflow?

Gitflow workflow employs two parallel long-running branches to record the history of the project, master and develop:

  • Hotfix

    Maintenance or “hotfix” branches are used to quickly patch production releases. Hotfix branches are a lot like release branches and feature branches except they’re based on master instead of developing.
  • Master

    It is always ready to be released on LIVE, with everything fully tested and approved (production-ready).
  • Develop

    It is the branch to which all feature branches are merged and where all tests are performed. Only when everything’s been thoroughly checked and fixed it can be merged to the master.
  • Feature

    Each new feature should reside in its own branch, which can be pushed to the develop branch as their parent one.

Q13. What do you mean by git fork? Explain the advantage of forking workflow.

fork is a remote, server-side copy of a repository, distinct from the original. A fork isn’t a Git concept really, it’s more a political/social idea.

The main advantage of the Forking Workflow is that contributions can be integrated without the need for everybody to push to a single central repository that leads to clean project history. Developers push to their own server-side repositories, and only the project maintainer can push to the official repository.

Q14. What is the difference between git fetch and git pull?

The difference between git fetch and git pull.

Git FetchGit Pull
git fetch really only downloads new data from a remote repository – but it doesn’t integrate any of this new data into your working files.

Fetch is great for getting a fresh view of all the
things that happened in a remote repository.

Use command:
$ git fetch origin
git pull, in contrast, is used with a different goal in mind: to update your current HEAD branch with the latest changes from the remote server.

This means that pull not only downloads new data; it also directly integrates it into your current working copy files.

Use command:
$ git pull origin master

Q15. What is git stash? Is it possible to create multiple stashes in Git?

Answer. Git stash is a temporarily shelves or stashes that help you with the changes that you have made to your working copy so you can work o some another project also, and then come back and re-apply it later on.

The Git stash will take the working directory in the current state and index it to put on the stack at a later stage so that what you get is a clean working directory. This means that if you are in the middle of some task and need to get a clean working directory and together you want to keep all your current edits then you can use the Git stash.

Yes. You can run git stash several times to create multiple stashes, and then use git stash list to view them.

Q 16. Explain git revert command?

Answer. The git revert command is a forward-moving undo operation that offers a safe method of undoing changes. Instead of deleting or orphaning commits in the commit history, a revert will create a new commit that inverses the changes specified. Git revert is a safer alternative to git reset in regards to losing work.

Q17. What is a commit message? How you fix a broken commit?

Answer. A commit message is a comment that we add to a commit. We can provide meaningful information about the reason for commit by using a commit message. In most of the organizations, it is mandatory to put a commit message along with each commit. Often, commit messages to contain JIRA ticket, bug id, defect id, etc. for a project.

To fix any broken commit, you will use the command git commit—amend. By running this command, you can fix the broken commit message in the editor.

Q18. Explain the term sub-git and how it is useful in your project?

SubGit is a tool that is used for a smooth, stress-free SVN to GIT migration. It is a solution for a company-wide migration from SVN to GIT.

The widely used for the following reasons:

  • It is much better than git-SVN.
  • There is no requirement to change the infrastructure that is already placed.
  • Allows using all features of Git and SVN.
  • It provides a genuine stress-free migration experience.

Q19. Why git better than subversion?

Answer. Git is decentralized, so all your local copy acts as a repository to compare and keep in under view, while the remote repository is inaccessible. Whereas the subversion is centralized that the repository can get offline and affect the work. That’s why developers found Git better than Subversion.

Q20. Difference between pre-receive, update and post-receive hooks in git?

The pre-receive hook is invoked when a commit is pushed to a destination repository. Any script attached to this hook is executed before updating any reference. This is mainly used to enforce the development of best practices and policies.

An update hook is similar to a pre-receive hook. It is triggered just before any updates are done. This hook is invoked once for every commit that is pushed to a destination repository.

Post-receive hook is invoked after the updates have been done and accepted by a destination repository. This is mainly used to configure deployment scripts. It can also invoke Continuous Integration (CI) systems and send notification emails to relevant parties of a repository.

Q21. Do you differentiate between Head, working tree and index?

Answer. Differentiate between:

HEAD: It is a reference to the last commit in the currently checked-out branch.

Working Tree: It is the directory tree of sources and files that you edit and see. Also known as a workspace and working directory.

Index: This is the single, large, as well as a binary file in <baseOfRepo>/.git.index , which lists all the files in the current branch.

Q22. What are the various branching strategies for a developer in git?

Answer. Various branching strategies are as follows:

Feature Branching: 

A feature branch keeps all the changes for a particular feature inside a branch. When the feature is fully tested and validated, then it is merged into master.

Task Branching: 

In Task branching, each task is implemented on its own branch with the task key included in the branch name. With this, it is easy to see which code implements which task, just need to find the task key in the branch name.

Release Branching: 

We can clone a branch to form a release branch once the develop branch has acquired enough features for a release. Creating the release branch starts the next release cycle, and hence no new feature can be added after this point, only bug fixes are allowed.

Q23. Major difference between Git and GitHub.

Answer. Git v/s GitHub.

Git GitHub
Git is a distributed version control system
which tracks changes to the Git creates a local repository to track
changes locally rather than store them on a
centralized server. source
code over time.
GitHub is a web-based hosting service for Git
repository to bring teams together.
It is a command-line tool that requires an interface to interact with the world.It is a graphical interface and a development
platform created for millions of developers.
Git creates a local repository to track
changes locally rather than store them on a
centralized server.
GitHub is open-source which means code
is stored in a centralized server and is
accessible to everybody.
It stores and catalogs changes in code in a repository.It provides a platform as a collaborative the
effort to bring teams together.
It can work without GitHub as other web-based Git repositories are also available.It is the most popular Git server but there are other alternatives available such as GitLab and BitBucket.

Q24 Describes the function of “Git Clone” and “Git config”?

Git Clone: It is a command which creates a copy of an existing Git repository, and to get a copy of a central repository. Cloning is the most common way used by programmers to secure their projects.

Git config: It is a command that convenient way to set configuration options for your Git installation. The behavior of a repository, user info, preferences, etc. can be defined through this command.

Backend Developer Database Development Frontend Developers Remote developer

Learn API Inside Out

“An Application Program Interface(API) that provides a developer with programmatic access to a proprietary software application. A software intermidieary that makes it possible for appilication programs to interact with each other and share data.”

What Is An API ?

So API is a communication protocol between the client and the server that simplifies the building of client-side software. It has been described as a “contract” , such that if the client makes a request in a specific format, it will always get a response in a specific format or initiate a defined action.

API can be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware, or software library. An API specification can take many forms, sometimes it includes specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, variables, or remote calls. APIs are implemented by function calls that are composed of verbs and nouns. The required syntax is described in the documentation of the application being called. API improves the customer experience as it provides greater functionality and scope of services within a single application or other digital elements.

“An API is a very useful mechanism that allows two pieces of software to exchange data and messages in a standard format. Thus it become an instrument to search for new revenue streams. Open the doors to talent, or automate processes in an innovativeway.”

API: A Data Revolution

  • Effortless Integration
    Allows partners and customers to access your systems in a stable and secure way.
  • Cloud Computing
    APIs are needed for both the initial migration and integration with other systems.
  • Competitive Market
    The market is now so competitive that a company’s success may depend on how usable their API is.
  • Mobile phones
    Devices embedded with sensors fit the service-based structure of APIs perfectly.
  • Flexibility
    APIs allow you to quickly leverage and use your desired services. This lowers risks and allows for greater innovation.
  • Proven Success
    Companies that adopted an API first strategy caused the disruption of entire sectors.

Types Of API: Pick The Right

Software providers may use one of several API types, depending on their preferences and the functionality they are offering. As its good to know all about the path you choose here are the possible integration and development between different software platforms.


REST, or Representational State Transfer, is a most common API category that is not dependent on a specific protocol. It offers a flexible integration option that makes developers able to achieve their goals by using a standardized set of processes to achieve their goals. It provides a straightforward architectural style and streamlines the connection between the client and the server. REST is considered a relatively user-friendly API to work with, and many developers are experienced in this technology.


SOAP, or Simple Object Access Protocol, is an API that connects different platforms together through HTML and XML. The structure and requirements for SOAP are more rigid than REST, and it’s defined by a specific protocol. Web applications have started moving away from this older traditional type. It is hard to implement flexible integration here. However, this structure does allow for more stringent security measures and includes stateful operations without custom coding.


ASP.NET is a specific form of a REST API .NET technology. The main benefit of using this type is the structured framework that’s in place. If you are working with windows-based technology, you can send HTTP protocol messages to a variety of platforms. Dot NET framework is lightweight and easy to work with, which can speed up development time and add flexibility to your third party integration.

API Lifecycle: 4 Stages

API’s lifecycle basically summarizes the whole lifespan, right from initial conception, to deprecation and final retirement. APIs’ lifecycle varies with its core functionality and the nature of software or business. Let’s analyze the four stages of the API lifecycle.

API Panning, Design, Analysis

This stage is generally called the API Requirement Definition stage. In this stage, providers need to determine a definition in which they have to give the reason for creating a new API, the objective that it will achieve, and the overall business strategy that will be implemented. It has to be analyzed whether creating an API would indeed solve the existing requirements. And after its establishment, the purposes of the API are to evolve with the overall organizational objectives.

At this stage some points have to be decided:-
1) API growth model
2) Projection/Predictions of usage
3) Mission statement(s)
4) Expected returns from the API
5) API marketing and promotional methods to be adopted.

Once these have been decided another extremely important element is, finalizing the type of API to create.
1) Public APIs
2) Private APIs
3) Partner APIs

API Development And Integration

API providers must understand the exact technical requirements and capabilities of the program interface. The API hosting tools and management methodology, an understanding of the protocols to be used is important. Developers need to be aware of all the operations as well, the security features, access control options and the quality of end-user-experience the API will provide. The scalability and the size of APIs are also the points to considerate.

There are many API development frameworks, depending on the programming language used by developers. Here are a few of them:-

a) Sinatra and Grape (for Ruby)
b) and JAX-RS (for Java)
c) Slim (for PHP)
d) Restify and Express.js (for Node.js)
e) Django and Flask Web (for Python)

Note: AppNow is also an often-used tool for API prototyping, data model specification and deployment, and demonstrations. Deployment with AppNow (with CRUD RESTful API and AngularJS) can be tested with the Swagger tool.

Versioning is one of the most important parts of this stage. Versioning is important to keep things systematic.
It included:-
i) API designing (ensuring both human-usability as well as machine-readability)
ii) API construction
iii) API security (through access control tools)
iv) API testing

The rate limit is a common security strategy for APIs. These put an upper limit on the total number of network requests within a time period. As API lifecycle is iterative, it is easy to go back to the Analysis stage at any time and make changes, as and when required.

API Operations and Management

By the end of Stage 2, a two-way connection between the API backend and corresponding website or mobile app has been established. In this stage, an intermediate layer- API management is created and inserted between the two, to boost API intelligence and performance levels.

Systematic API management helps in:-
a) Making the user-behavior more predictable.
b) Monitoring key API analytics to increase performance.
c) Establishing API monetization scheme.
d) Securing the API endpoints.

One of the biggest inclusion in the third stage of the lifecycle is API testing and bug fixing. This makes the interfaces smoother and glitch-free. Initial user-opinions and feedback also need to be collected and analyzed.

Note: API documentation, initiated in the previous stage, has to be regularly updated and maintained during the Operations stage. All the changes made in the structure of the API should be recorded in the documentation / changelog / release notes.

In API Management layer, developers have to work with 2 separate URLs:

a) The first URL exists between the application/website (final product) and the management tab. It is published and is viewable to everyone who has authorized access to the interface.
b) The second URL exists between the management tab and the API. This one remains private and is not accessible to any third-party entity.

There are some features and solutions that any standard API management platform should offer. These include the API contracts, the security, and access controls, the documentation, developer portal access, analytics and usage, and of course, all billing-related information.

API Engagement, Adoption, and Retirement

There are 2 major components in any campaign to drive up the engagement/ adoption rates of an API:
1) Boosting its discoverability and usability. Users should be able to find the API easily, and not run into any problem while working with the software.
2) Creating interesting use-cases to highlight the utility of the API to app/web developers. Delivering top-notch developer-experience(DX) is always of the essence.

API developer program typically has the following:

a) Developer portal (the main point of the entrance within the API)
b) API Evangelists (for online and offline promotion of APIs)
c) Pilot partners (for collecting feedback and suggestions)
d) Outreach acceleration with partners (for increasing the reach of API-related messages, with the help of partner organizations)
e) Community development (for selecting the right web and social media channels to promote APIs)

Note: Creating a scheme to monitor the effectiveness of marketing campaigns should also be a part of an exhaustive API Developer Program. All partners should be leveraged properly, to maximize the outreach of the API in existing markets.

Retiring an API is pretty much like discontinuing any piece of software. It happens when the usage metrics start to go down steadily, there is little or no innovation on the part of app developers, and/or a mismatch of revenue-related objectives. 

API design: Does It Matter?

Building APIs is hard and should be very careful with your APIs. An API can be your best asset but also your biggest liability. A bad user experience while consuming your APIs will lead you to endless support calls and a bad reputation as well. This all could make your service unreliable. So it’s important to plan before implementing your API. This is where you design and apply RESTful API description formats like the OpenAPI Specifications and API Blueprint.

  • Defining API design
    API design involves a lot more than the way you write normal code. Designing an API means providing an effective interface that helps your API’s consumers better understand, use and integrate with them while helping you maintain it effectively. API design should have:-
    a) The structure of resources
    b) The documentation of resources

  • Helps in Better implementation
    An API’s design is a blueprint on what your API wants to achieve and gives a brief overview of all the endpoints and CRUD operations associated with each of them. An effective API design can greatly help in implementation and prevent complicated configurations.

  • Incremental development
    API development is a continuous process. As your products and services evolve, so should your API. Having a clear design helps your organization and team know exactly which resource, or sub-resources, would need to be updated and preventing confusion. A well-designed API can prevent repeating work and help developers know exactly which resources would need to be updated and which ones should be retired. 

  • Better Documentation
    Documentation is crucial for building the interface that lets your API be consumed. In many cases, comprehensive documentation is done only after the API’s resources and response-request cycles are mapped out. A solid initial structure makes documenting the API faster and less error-prone.

  • Improves Developer Experience
    A good API design makes the life of the end developer easy. It’s quick to understand with all the resources well organized, fun to interact with and easy to look, so the people who consume your API have a smooth experience working with it.

How An API Works

How are APIs work in the real world?  Let’s look at this example of booking a flight.

When you search for flights online, you have a menu of options to choose from. You choose a departure city and date, a return city and date, cabin class, and other variables like your meal, your seat, or baggage requests.

To book your flight, you need to interact with the airline’s website to access the airline’s database to see if any seats are available on those dates, and what the cost might be based on the date, flight time, route popularity, etc.

You need access to that information from the airline’s database, whether you’re interacting with it from the website or an online travel service that fetches information from multiple airlines. Alternatively, you might be accessing the information from a mobile phone. In any case, you need to get the information, and so the application must interact with the airline’s API, giving it access to the airline’s data.

The API is the interface that, runs and delivers the data from the application you’re using to the airline’s systems over the Internet. It also then takes the airline’s response to your request and delivers right back to the travel application you’re using. Moreover, through each step of the process, it facilitates the interaction between the application and the airline’s systems – from seat selection to payment and booking.

APIs do the same for all interactions between applications, data, and devices. They allow the transmission of data from the system to the system, creating connectivity. APIs provide a standard way of accessing any application data, or device, whether it’s accessing cloud applications like Salesforce, or shopping from your mobile phone.

Most Popular APIs

  • Google Maps API:- Developers embed Google Maps on webpages using a JavaScript or Flash interface. Google Maps API is designed to work on mobile devices and desktop browsers.

  • YouTube APIs:- Google’s APIs let developers integrate YouTube videos and functionality into websites or applications. YouTube APIs include the YouTube Analytics API, YouTube Data API, YouTube Live Streaming API, YouTube Player APIs, and others.

  • Flicker API:- The Flicker API is used by developers to access the Flick photo sharing community data. The Flickr API consists of a set of callable methods and some API endpoints.

  • Twitter APIs:- Twitter offers two APIs. The REST API allows developers to access core Twitter data and the Search API provides methods for developers to interact with Twitter Search and trends data.

  • Amazon Product Advertising API:- Amazon’s Product Advertising API gives developers access to Amazon’s product selection and discovery functionality to advertise Amazon products to monetize a website.
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23 JavaScript Interview Questions And Answers

JavaScript is a high-level, dynamic, untyped, and interpreted programming language. It has been standardized in the ECMAScript language specification. Alongside HTML and CSS, it is one of the three essential technologies of World Wide Web content production; the majority of websites employ it and it is supported by all modern web browsers without plug-ins or any kind of other extensions.

“Javascript is the duct tape of the Internet.”

Let’s starts with some common Qs about JavaScript.

  • JavaScript is developed by- Netscape Communications Corporation Mozilla Foundation, Ecma International.

  • It designed by- Brendan Eich

  • JavaScript is called- JS

  • The extension filename of JavaScript- .js

  • JavaScript Media type- application/javascript, text/javascript.

  • The current version of JavaScript- ECMAScript 2018.

In this guide, you’ll find example interview Qs and answers you can refer to when seeking a new JavaScript developer to make your dynamic user interfaces come to life. You’ll also get some practical Qs on how to use these Qs to reliably identify results.

Q 1. Is JavaScript and JScript the same?

Answer. Both JavaScript vs JScript is designed to make dynamic web pages and interactive content.

  • Javascript is a scripting language (supports scripts) for Web pages but it is also used in non-browser environments as well. It is a powerful, lightweight, interpreted, scripting language with first-class functions (i.e. the language supports passing functions as arguments to other functions).
  • JScript is also a scripting language, much similar to JavaScript. It is a dialect of the popular ECMAScript standard reverse-engineered by Microsoft. JScript is subsidy by Microsoft and used in one of the most popular web browsers Microsoft’s Internet Explorer. JScript can also be called “Microsoft’s JavaScript”.
TypeScripting languageScripting language owned by Microsoft.
SimplicityIt needs to write scripts manually. Same as JavaScript in this context.
It needs to handle multiple
browsers compatibility.
Only support by Microsoft’s internet
Active Content
Does not support active content
With JScript, you can create active
online content for WWW.
JavaScript cannot access web browser
JScript can easily access-
objects exposed by internet explorer.

Q 2. Justify the use of let and const in JavaScript?

Answer. Earlier in javascript, developers use the var keyword for creating variables. let & const keyword is introduced in version ES6 with the vision of creating two different types of variables in javascript one is immutable and the other is mutable. The use if let and const in JavaScript:

  • let

let is used for variable declaration as it comes as an improvement to the var declarations. let is a block code bounded as {}. So a variable declared in a block with the let is only available for use within that block.

  • Example:
let greeting = "say Hi";
   let times = 4;

   if (times > 3) {
        let hello = "say Hello instead";
        console.log(hello);//"say Hello instead"
   console.log(hello) // hello is not defined
  • const

Variables declared with the const maintain constant values. const declarations share some similarities with let declarations.

Like let declarations, const declarations can only be accessed within the block it was declared in.

const cannot be updated or re-declared

This means that the value of a variable declared with const remains the same within its scope. It cannot be updated or re-declared. So if we declare a variable with const.

  • Example:
const greeting = "say Hi";
    greeting = "say Hello instead";//error : Assignment to constant variable. 

Q 3. Explain the MUL function in JavaScript?

Answer. MUL means a simple multiplication of numbers. It is a technique in which you pass one value as an argument in a function and that function returns another function to which you pass the second value and the process goes on. Multiplies two expressions. This is the functional equivalent of the (*) operator.

Q 4. List the Frameworks and Data types supported by JavaScript?

Answer. The frameworks used by JavaScript are:

  • Node.js
  • Angular.js
  • React
  • Vue.js
  • Ember.js
  • Meteor
  • Backbone.js

Data types supported by JavaScript are:

  • Symbol
  • String
  • Boolean
  • Null
  • Undefined
  • Number
  • Object

Q 5. How you can redirect a page to another page in JavaScript?

Answer. There are several ways to redirect the page to another page in JavaScript. These are:

  • Using location.href: It is the first approach to redirect page. In this, we can go back to access the original document.

  • Using location.replace: Another approach to redirect page. In this, it is not possible to navigate back to the original document by clicking on the back button as it removes the URL of the original document. 

Q 6. Clarify some design patterns in JavaScript?

Answer. The design pattern is a reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design. Some of the design patterns are:

  1. Behavioral Patterns: 
    These patterns are to improve communication between objects and to recognize patterns. Visitor, states, strategy, Memento, Mediator, Iterator, Command, Chain of responsibility and observer are examples of Behavioral patterns.

  2. Creational design pattern: 
    These patterns deal with the mechanism of object creation which optimizes object creation with the basic approach. Factory method, Abstract Factory, Builder, Prototype, and Singleton are the categories of Creational design pattern.

  3. Concurrency design patterns: 
    These patterns handle with multi-thread programming paradigms. Some popular categories of concurrency design patterns are Scheduler, Nuclear reaction, and Active object.

  4. Structural design pattern: 
    These patterns deal with different classes and objects to provide new functionality. Adapter, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, Facade, Flyweight, and proxy are the categories od structural design patterns.

  5. Architectural design patterns: 
    These patterns used to deal with architectural designs. Like: MVC (Model-View-Controller), MVVM (Model-View-ViewModel), and MVP (Model-View-presenter).

Q 7. Explain promise in JavaScript?

Answer. A Promise is a proxy for a value not necessarily known when the promise is created. It allows the developers to associate handlers with asynchronous action’s eventual success value or failure reason. Essentially, a promise is a returned object that you can attach callbacks to, instead of passing callbacks into a function.

  • 3 states to a promise:
  1. pending: awaiting promise response.
  2. resolve : promise has successfully returned.
  3. reject: failure occurred.
  • Syntax:
new Promise(executor);
Function process of promise

Q 8. What are the advantages of using JavaScript?

Answer. Some key advantages of JavaScript are:

  • JavaScript is an easy language to learn.

  • It is comparatively fast for the end-user.

  • Easy to debug and test.

  • JavaScript is platform-independent.

  • It works on the client6-side.

  • Also, has powerful frameworks.

  • Event-based programming language.

  • Procedural programming capabilities.

Q 9. How to get inner HTML of an element in JavaScript?

Answer. InnerHTML property of HTML DOM is used to get inner Html of an element in JavaScript.

  • Example:
<script type="text/javascript">
	var  inner= document.getElementById("inner").innerHTML ;
	console.log(inner); // This is inner Element
	document.getElementById("inner").innerHTML = "Html changed!";
	var  inner= document.getElementById("inner").innerHTML ;
	console.log(inner); // Html changed!

Q 10. What are the Arrow functions in JavaScript?

Answer. Arrow functions were introduced in ES6. Arrow functions allow the developers to write shorter function syntax.

hello = () => {
  return "Hello World!";

An arrow function expressions is a syntactically compact alternative to a regular function expression, but this function has its own bindings to the arguments, super, this, and keywords.

Q 11. How to encode and decode a URL in JavaScript?

Answer. Encode and Decode a URL in JavaScript:

  • encodeURI() function is used to encode an URL in Javascript.It takes a url string as parameter and return encoded string. Note: encodeURI() did not encode characters like / ? : @ & = + $ #, if you have to encode these characters too please use encodeURIComponent().

var uri = "my profile.php?name=alex&occupation=danciNG";
var encoded_uri = encodeURI(uri);
  • decodeURI() function is used to decode a URL in Javascript. It takes an encoded URL string as a parameter and returns decoded string.

var uri = "my profile.php?name=alex&occupation=danciNG";
var encoded_uri = encodeURI(uri);

Q 12. Classify the different ways of empty an array in javascript?

Answer. In Javascript, there are many ways to empty an array, here are the four major ways to empty an array:

  • By poping the elements of the array.
var arr2 =[1,4,5,6];
while(arr.length > 0) {
  • Assigning array length to 0.
var arr2 =[1,4,5,6];
  • Using .splice().
var arr =[1,4,5,6];
  • By assigning an empty array.
var arr1 =[1,4,5,6];

Q 13. How to remove duplicates from JavaScript Array?

Answer. The three main approaches to remove duplicates from JavaScript Array:

  • By using Set:

It is the simplest way to remove duplicates because Set is an inbuilt object to store unique values in an array.

How to use set:

 function uniquearray(array) { 
       let unique_array= Array.from(set(array)) 
       return unique_array;}

By this code, you can easily create a set of an array that automatically eliminates duplicate values in JavaScript.

  • By using Filter:

This is another way to remove duplicates from an array. In the Filter method, it requires three arguments: Current element, Index of the current element, and Array.

How to use Filter:

function unque_array (arr){
 let unique_array = arr.filter(function(elem, index, self) {
 return index == self.indexOf(elem); } 
return unique_array }
  • By using for loop:

This is also a way to remove duplicates, but in this developer make an empty array in which those elements will be added from the duplicate array to get the unique elements.

Code use as:

Array dups_names = ['Tom', 'Pal', 'Fred', 'Rongo', 'Ron'];
function dups_array(dups_names) {
 let unique = {};
 names.forEach(function(i) {
    If (!unique[i]) {
      unique[i] = true;    }
return Object.keys(unique);}   // Tom, Pal, Fred, Rongo

Q 14. Are the results of 6 + 4 + ‘45’ and 6 + 4 + 45 the same?

Answer. No, the results should be different from each other because the results for the two statements are very different from each other. 6 + 4 + 45 gives the result 55, which is the expected answer for the addition of numbers. But, 6 + 4 + ‘45’ returns 1045 as a result. This is because 45 is a string and 6 and 4 are numbers. The presence of the string specifies that the + operator is a string operator for concatenation rather than an arithmetic operator.

Q 15. What is null, undefined, and undeclared JavaScript variable?


  • Null

It can be assigned to a variable to represent no value. It is an assignment value.

var b = null;
console.log(b); //null
console.log(typeof b); //object
  • Undefined

It means a variable has been declared but has not yet been assigned a value

var a;
console.log(a); //undefined
console.log(typeof a); // undefined
  • Undeclared

If a variable is not declared then the browser throws an error.

// Uncaught ReferenceError: nonDeclaredVariable is not defined
//    at <anonymous>:1:13
console.log(typeof nonDeclaredVariable); //undefined

Q 16. What is the purpose of ‘This’ operator in JavaScript?

Answer. The JavaScript this keyword refers to the object it belongs to. This has different values depending on where it is used. In a method, this refers to the owner object and in a function, this refers to the global object.

Q17. Explain the terms synchronous and asynchronous code.

Answer. The synchronous code is something that should be finished before anything else can happen, or in other words, the synchronous code is blocking. And the Asynchronous code is something in which actions can happen and is not dependent on other actions- in other words, it is non-blocking.

Q 18. Are “==” and “===” operators different in JavaScript?

Answer. “==” checks only for equality in value whereas “===” is a stricter equality test and returns false if either the value or the type of the two variables are different. So, the second option needs both the value and the type to be the same for the operands.

Q 19. How to Calculating the Fibonacci series in JavaScript?

Answer. Fibonacci Series is a sequence of numbers where the first two Fibonacci numbers are 0 and 1, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two.

function fibonacci(n) {
let arr= new Array(n+1);
for(let i=3;i<=n;i++)
for(let i=1;i<=n;i++)

Answer. The process of Create, Read, and Delete a cookie by using JavaScript:

  • Cookie creating process-

The simple way to create a cookie is to assign a string value to the document.cookie object.


document.cookie = "key1 = value1; key2 = value2; expires = date";
  • Reading a cookie-

It is just as simple as writing one for the developers because of the value document.cookie object is the cookie. So you can use this string whenever you want to access it.

This fulfills your two conditions:

  1. The document.cookie string will keep a list of anme= value pairs separated by semicolons.

  2. It is easy for the developers to use the string’s split() function to break the string into key and values.
  • Delete a cookie-

If you want to delete a cookie, that subsequent attempts to read the cookie return nothing, you just need to set the expiration date to a time in the past. You should define the cookie path to ensure that you delete the right cookie. Some browsers will not let you delete a cookie if you don’t specify the path.

Q 21. Consider the following code:

function test() {
var a = 1;
function foo() {
return 2;

What is the result of executing this code and why?

Answer. The result of this code is undefined and 2.

The reason is that both variables and functions are hoisted but variables don’t retain any assigned value. So, at the time the variable “a” is printed, it exists in the function but it’s still undefined. Stated in other words, the code above is equivalent to the following:

function test() {
var a;
function foo() {
return 2;
a = 1;

Q 22. List the comparison operators supported by JavaScript?

Answer. The comparison operators are:

  • < Less than
  • > Greater than
  • <= less than or equal to
  • >= Greater than or equal to
  • == Equal to
  • != Not Equal to
  • === Equal to with datatype check
  • !== Not equal to with datatype check

Q 23. How you can clone an object in JavaScript?

Answer. Object.assign() method is used for cloning an object in Javascript.


 var x = {myProp: "value"};
 var y = Object.assign({}, x); 

Business Database Development Startup Top Coder

Five Upcoming Tools For Software Developers, you should keep your eye on.

You will definitely agree that today developing tools are the helping hands of the developers. There are too many tools that help to create robust applications. A developer should know about the upcoming tools that might be helpful to them for future projects.

Here are the top five upcoming tools for software developers that fulfill their need to build projects.

1. Creates a direct workflow for your software:

GitHub Actions

It is the first new upcoming developer’s tool and you can try GitHub Action by signing up on its official website. It gives developers the flexibility to build an automated lifecycle workflow for software development. And Workflows run in Linux, macOS, Windows, and containers on GitHub-hosted servers. So developers can create workflows using actions defined in their repository, open-source actions in a public repository on GitHub, or a published Docker container image.

Some feature of GitHub Actions are:

Write tasks (Actions) to create your custom workflow.

  • GitHub introduced GitHub Actions to customize your workflow. “Actions” is a feature of GitHub using code packaged in a Docker container running on GitHub’s servers. Developers can set up triggers for events, such as introducing new code to a testing channel, that set off Actions to take further steps involving that code defined by principles set by administrators.
  • Like most of the projects, software development is usually broken down in dozens, hundreds, or thousands of small steps depending on the scope of the project. Teams need to coordinate on the progress of those steps, such as whether they are ready for review or still need some work, as well as coordinating the merging of that code into existing software without breaking anything.

These Actions, which is now

  • In limited unrestricted beta,
  • Developers can set up the workflow to build,
  • Use packages, and
  • Update and deploy the code.

Compile and Run automatical

  • This tool is considered as a “Biggest shift ever in the history of GitHub”. Neither, have you ever thought that there would a tool that customizes your workflow according to your needs? It’s just a new concept to enhance the productivity of the developers. It is a more flexible version of shortcut, on GitHub as well as it designed to allow developers to create an action inside a container to augment and connect their workflow.

Actions are shareable and discoverable

  • That means no more mucking around different services just to create one single project or get your code into production. With GitHub Actions, you can continuous integration tool that allows developers to automate tasks for their web projects which consume less time by sharing and discover the codes.
  • Just like Repos in GitHub- To put your projects up on GitHub, it is important to create a repository for it to live in. You have to create public repositories for an open-source project and this includes a license file that determines how many people you want to share your codes. But with Actions, it is easy to share and discover the codes. GitHub Actions now supports CI/CD, free for public repositories.
  • It allows the developers who have worked on GitHub projects in private repositories. That accounts contain a huge amount of corporate or business development projects. To list contributions to some of those projects without giving away all the secrets.

Some cool terms use by developers on GitHub Action:

  • Workflow
  • Workflow File
  • Job
  • Workflow Run
  • Action
  • Step
  • Continuous Integration (CI)
  • Continuous Deployment (CD)
  • Artifact
  • Events
  • Runner
  • Virtual Environment

Let’s move to the second another Tool for developers.

2. A transparent development automation tool:


Automate deployments with your custom-ready CI even for complex apps, to your servers or cloud. It is a transparent deployment tool by developers for developers, with the possibility to easily deploy complex applications, as well as static websites or client-side projects directly from your CI.

It is a software deployment tool that lets you deploy your applications, regardless of the level of complexity. This deployment product supports the deployment of Kotlin, Java, Scala applications, and does an excellent job of providing a live editor. With the editor, you can monitor and control every step involved in the software deployment process.

As a DevOps or Site Reliability Engineer, you’d find what DeployPlace offers to be quite exciting. The deployment tool is very supportive of CI/CD.

DeployPlace will amaze you with its focused features which positively hit the market.

  • Control your program with live editor
    It is absolutely transparent, unlike other deployment tools, DeployPlace is one step up. It comes with live editor which controls all your actions and makes things easy for you.

  • Get an advanced Dashboard for your applications
    This another feature that creates the history say deployPlace committed to auto-deploy and comes with external integrations such as Slack notifications, New Relic, Sentry, etc.

  • Working on any complex application- make it easy with DelpoyPlace
    The developers with DeployPlace easily deal with complex application. Just prepared your CI and it will do all for you. Customizable deployment templates allow you to tweak any sensitive parameter to ensure every aspect of your server is set up properly.

DeployPlace will useful for developers who do not want to get involved in the deployment process of apps. So you can center on writing code and developing features, with the support that it’ll be deployed with the highest standards when using DeployPlace. DevOps Developers looking to abstract complexities when deploying services will also find DeployPlace to be a great tool.

You only need to add the CI of your app and the server details and the job is done. CIs such as GitlabCI, CircleCI, TravisCI, BambooCI, and Jenkins are all supported.

This one is really cool for the developers, New as well as easy. Let’s move to the next tool that is:

3. As easy As Pie-


QueryPie welcomes the developers with a complete cross-platform database IDE. Mark the month of July 2019, the Beta version of QueryPie was officially released for the developers who want to experience a new way to work with data. Using it is easy as well as pleasing for the UI/UX.

The beta version of QueryPie supports the OS environment for Windows, Mac, and Linux. And currently, it supporting DBMSs- MySQL, MariaDB, and AWS Aurora for MySQL. The Beta version of QueryPie is available currently.

It will provide you some awesome feature that makes your developing experience so rocking.

  • Directly edit in the data grid
    You can add, delete, and copy data easily right in the data grid.

  • Run import/ export and get the result export list
    The top icon provides a simple import/export function. Just click the bottom Export Files icon to see a list of downloaded files.

  • Have SQL AutoComplete
    Fast, automatic table/column/view information and query completion enhances database productivity and makes writing SQL easier

  • Auto-Commit Option setting and Code Review Capabilities
    Auto-Commit mode is simple to turn on or off. View a list of uncommitted transactions by clicking on the corresponding button at the top to enable code review.

  • Easily get SQL history and syntax
    When you click the right SQL History button, you can view the history of queries that runs. Simply press the Copy button to copy and re-run or share the syntax.

  • Run multiple SQL queries
    Run multiple queries at the same time and view all the results instantly without having to switch between panels. You can view the Run result panels side-by-side or stacked, making comparisons more convenient

  • Convenient object information panel and search function
    You can compare several table information using panels and view Data, Structure, Index, Relation, Trigger, Info and Scripts in the table. You can also use the search function to find and filter only the specific data you want to view.

  • Select or retrieve database
    When you connect to the database, you can select the schema in the upper left corner and see a list of tables, views, procedures, triggers and more. You can also search directly for these elements. Merely double-click a table name to view table information in the right-hand object panel.

  • Get a Dashboard connection list
    You can easily enter and create connection information from the main dashboard. Linked databases are sorted by color which makes finding and accessing specific databases very easy.

QueryPie targetS to Database users from different backgrounds: DBAs, developers, and SQL Engineers to Planners related directly to the databases, Marketers, and Data Scientists.

It’s essential for all startups and small businesses that work with databases. Development organizations can configure and manage databases and run SQL faster than any other tool using QueryPie. Non-development organizations can securely access databases, analyze and visualize data they want, and organize as well as share dashboards with QueryPie.

Additionally, all actions passed to the database through QueryPie are transparently written in a blockchain. This enables high-level database security audits, and also provides a database Fraud Detection System (FDS) that lets users learn the usual database access patterns. Users can also track SQL execution patterns and send alerts to the administrator in advance if abnormal activity is detected. With this method, companies can easily meet the legal guidelines for various expected privacy measures.

This one the sweet like a Pie and familiar to MySQL.

4. AutomatedApi– For backend services to automate

AutomatedApi is up and running with user registration, login, API creation, and API access. The main purpose of this tool is to store data for your applications for further use so that you can easily able to get any data without worrying about how it works.

Reserve your user name now with Automated Api. It provides you three simple #steps to build applications.

#First Just tell Automated API, what you want to store and click

After that, #Secondly click and reach the familiar reference interface to work and connect to your service.

#Third Chill and have a break it’s done!

So, have you see in a few simple steps you save your lots of time. AutomatedApi lets you hit the ground running, so you can deliver new functionality faster. Stop spending time on code stuff and start spending it on developing. It generates solutions in minutes that would take developers hours. From basic models to complex object graphs, the more you build the more you save.

Client-side applications are everywhere, and many client-side developers do not enjoy doing server-side tasks. However, client-side applications still need to display data, and it has to come from a server. With AutomatedApi, frontend developers can build their applications and consume APIs without needing to have the skills of a backend developer. Simply as setup and consume. Automated API is currently in its Closed Beta stage.

5. Expand your code Brain- ExBrain

Writing code is hard. Reading code is even harder!

ExBrain is a tool which is uses as the external brain of developers. It will help the developers to break down the workload by learning silly codes and prioritize and focus on what is important to learn to get maximum results.

Because the developers spend most of their time to learning or reading code and get frustrated with this task, so to ease their work this tool coming in the market. Each codebase has its own format. Understanding what the classes, functions, and methods better. It is more useful to the developers who are new in this coding field.

This external brain works so perfectly. Well! its feature proves it.

  • Follows the progress
    This tool follows your work progress while learning code. ExBrain shows how progressively you completing your work.

  • Divide and generate
    ExBrain generates the code by dividing codebase into manageable blocks, which is quite easy for the developer to learn the code and split the codebase into flashcards

  • Never forget what learned
    ExBrain helps the developer to remember everything that they learned by using the proven technique of spaced repetition.

ExBrain will improve your productivity by helping you learn and remember everything about your codebase.


A lot of software development tools look to provide solutions to problems faced when creating software. There are many products in the market but these tools actually help the developers to make large and customize applications. But these are the five tools for developers, which work as their helping-hands, as well as increase their productivity that they have more time to build applications.

Backend Developer Business Cloud Database Development

Top 20 docker interview questions for 2019

Docker– A well-known technology widely used and appreciated by DevOps engineers originated in 2013 and it turned out to be a big hit by the end of 2017. So what makes Docker so darn popular? The following statement about Docker will definitely give you an overview of it.

“Docker is hotter than hot because it makes it possible to get far more apps running on the same old servers and it also makes it very easy to package and ship programs.”

All the noise about Docker is happening because companies are adopting it at a remarkable rate. Numerous businesses that had already moved their server application from virtual machines to containers. As Docker is a new trend in tech town no doubt its engineers are also in demand.

Here are the Top 20 Docker interviews question that will help you to achieve your goal:-

1. What is Docker?

Docker is a set-of-platform as service products. It’s an open-source lightweight containerization technology. It has made a popular name in the world of the cloud and application packaging. Docker allows you to automate the deployment of applications in lightweight and portable containers.

2. Difference between virtualization and containerization?

Containers provide an isolated environment for running the application. The entire user space is explicitly dedicated to the application. Any changes made inside the container is never reflected on the host or even other containers running on the same host. Containers are an abstraction of the application layer. Each container is a different application.

In virtualization, hypervisors provide an entire virtual machine to the guest including Kernal. Virtual machines are an abstraction of the hardware layer. Each VM is a physical machine.

3. What is a Docker Container and its advantages?

Docker containers include the application and all of its dependencies. It shares the kernel with other containers, running as isolated processes in user space on the host operating system. Docker containers don’t need any specific infrastructure, they run on any infrastructure, and in any cloud. Docker containers are basically runtime instances of Docker images.
Here are some major advantage of using Docker Container:-

  • It offers an efficient and easy initial set up.
  • It allows you to describe your application lifecycle in detail.
  • Simple configuration and interacts with Docker Compose.
  • Documentation provides every bit of information.

4. What are Docker images?

Docker image is the source of the Docker container Or can say Docker images are used to create containers. When a user runs a Docker image, an instance of a container is created. These docker images can be deployed to any Docker environment.

5. Explain Docker Architecture?

Docker Architecture consists of a Docker Engine which is a client-server application:-

  • A server which is a type of long-running program called a daemon process ( the docker command ).
  • A REST API that specifies interfaces that programs can use to talk the daemon and instruct it what to do.
  • A command-line interface (CLI) client (the docker command).
  • The CLI uses the Docker REST API to control or interact with Docker daemon applications use the underlying API and CLI.

6. What is Docker Hub?

Docker hub is a cloud-based registry that helps you to link code repositories. It allows you to build, test, store your image in the Docker cloud. You can also deploy the image to your host with the help of the Docker hub.

7. What are the important features of Docker?

Here are the essential features of Docker:-

  • Easy Modeling
  • version Control
  • Placement/Affinity
  • Application Agility
  • Developer Productivity
  • Operational Efficiencies

8. What are the main drawbacks of Docker?

Some of the disadvantages of Docker that you should keep in mind are:-

  • It doesn’t provide a storage option.
  • Offer a poor monitoring option.
  • No automatic rescheduling of inactive Nodes.
  • Complicated automatic horizontal scaling set up.

9. Tell us something about Docker Compose.

Docker Compose is a YAML file that contains details about the service, network, and volumes for setting up the Docker application. So, you can use Docker compose to create separate containers, host them and get them to communicate with other containers.

10. What is Docker Swarm?

Docker Swarm is native clustering for Docker. It turns a pool of Docker hosts into a single, virtual Docker host. Docker Swarm serves the standard Docker API, any tool that already communicates with a Docker daemon can use Swarm to transparently scale to multiple hosts.

11. What is Docker Engine?

Docker daemon or Docker engine represents the server. The docker daemon and the clients should be run on the same or remote host, which can communicate through command-line client binary and full RESTful API.

12. Explain Registries

Two types of registry are –

  • Public Registry
  • Private Registry

Docker’s public registry is called Docker hub, which allows you to store images privately. In Docker hub, you can store millions of images.

13. What command should you run to see all running container in Docker?

$ docker ps

14. Write the command to stop the Docker Container.

$ sudo docker stop container name

15. What is the command to run the image as a container?

$ sudo docker run -i -t alpine /bin/bash

16. Explain Docker object labels.

Docker object labels is a method for applying metadata to docker objects including images, containers, volumes, network, swarm nodes, and services.

17. Write a Docker file to create and copy a directory and built it using python modules?

FROM pyhton:2.7-slim


COPY . /app

docker build –tag

18. Where the docker volumes are stored?

you need to navigate


19. List out some important advanced docker commands.

20. How do you run multiple copies of Compose file on the same host?

Compose uses the project name which allows you to create unique identifiers for all of a project’s containers and other resources. To run multiple copies of a project, set a custom project name using the -a command-line option or using COMPOSE_PROJECT_NAME environment variable.

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Top 10 DevOps Automation Tools

“Automation does not need to be our enemy. I think machines can make life easier for men, if men do not let the machines dominate them.”

~ John F. Kennedy

In today’s digital age Automation tools work as the savior for engineers. Everyone is either creating automation tools or getting automated. Using automated tools is one of the best ways to save time, improve quality and flexibility, enhance productivity. These tools help you to identify security threats and breaks in runtime and prevent you from wasting time in restructuring.

According to market research by a well-known organization around 35% of the organizations are already using automation tools for their testing procedures and 29% have plans to implement automated strategies and tools for their products.

“The first rule of any technology used in a business is that automation applied to an efficient operation will magnify the efficiency. The second is that automation applied to an inefficient operation will magnify the inefficiency.”

~ Bill Gates

Automation plays a inseparable role in the DevOps from code generation, Integration, delivery to continuously testing and monitoring. In DevOps, operational teams started using automation for all their work that give DevOps the wings to fly so high. In a typical DevOps, a code is generated on the developer’s machine then it produces some output as a result and that result is being monitored throughout. Automation gives this process a kick for triggering the build, running unit test cases.

“I think one of the most interesting things about automation isn’t on the practical side. I think it’s about creating magic and wonder and moments of splendor.”

~ Genevieve Bell

Automation is also empowering other basic code quality, coverage test cases, and security-related test cases. Automation test cases are not limited to just unit test its included installation tests, UI tests, user experience tests, etc. DevOps makeable the operations team to implement automation in all their activities from provisioning the servers, configuring the servers, configuring the networks, configuring firewalls to monitoring the application in the production system.

Now you must be wondering how you can use automation for DevOps. To help you in this here are the top 10 DevOps automation tools.

1- Gradle

  • Gradle has been counted in the top 20 open-source projects and is trusted by millions of developers.
  • Build anything here either you write code in Java, C++, Python or any other language of your choice.
  • Here package is available for deployment on any platform.
  • Go monorepo or multi-repo.
  • One of the most versatile DevOps tools.
  • Gradle provides a rich API and a mature ecosystem of plugins and integration.
  • Model, integrate and systematize the delivery of your software from end to end.
  • Scale-out development with elegant and deliver faster.
  • Handles from compile avoidance to advanced caching and beyond, Gradle pursues performance relentlessly.

2- Git

  • This DevOps tool was designed by Torvald while maintaining a large distributed development project.
  • Git is one of the most popular distributed SCM (source code management) tools.
  • It is compatible with existent systems and protocols.
  • This tool is widely used and appreciated by remote teams and open source contributors.
  • By using Git you can track the progress of your development work.
  • Here you can save various versions of your source code and use these versions according to your needs.
  • You can create separate branches and merge new features at the time of launch. Hence this tool is also great for experimenting.
  • Git strongly supports nonlinear and distributed development of large projects.
  • It automatically accumulates garbage when enough useless objects have been created.
  • Git stores newly created files in a network byte stream called ‘packfile’.

3- Jenkins

  • Jenkins is a self-contained Java-based program.
  • It contains packages for Windows, Mac OS X, and other Unix-like operating systems.
  • Jenkins can be used as a simple CI server as well as a continuous delivery hub for any project.
  • Jenkins can be easily set up and configured by its web interface.
  • That includes on-the-fly error checks and built-in help.
  • Jenkins integrates with practically every tool in the continuous integration and continuous delivery toolchain.
  • Jenkins can be extended via its plugin architecture.
  • This tool makes you able to distribute work across multiple machines, helping drive builds, tests, and deployments across multiple platforms.

4- Docker

  • Docker is a set-of-platform as service products.
  • It uses OS-level virtualization to deliver software in packages called containers.
  • Makes you able to run and share container-based applications from the developer’s machine to the cloud.
  • It is based on Docker core building blocks including Docker Desktop, Docker Hub, and Docker engine.
  • Docker hub is the world’s largest container image library.
  • It scales up to 1K nodes.
  • Update the app and infrastructure with zero downtime.
  • Developers can quickly ramp productivity and deliver apps to production faster.

5- SeleniumHQ

  • Selenium is a browser automation tool. It is for automating web applications for testing purposes.
  • It is supported by some of the largest browsers vendors that make selenium a native/ part of their browser.
  • It also plays a vital role in countless other browser automation tools, API and frameworks.
  • Selenium WebDriver- “A collection of language-specific bindings to drive a browser- the way it is meant to be driven”.
  • Selenium used for creating robust, browser-based regression automation suites and tests.
  • Its scale and distribute scripts across many environments.
  • Selenium IDE- “a Chrome and Firefox add-on that will do simple record and payback of interactions with the browser“.
  • It creates quick bug reproduction scripts.


  • Chef is one of the founders of the DevOps movement.
  • Chef work with thousand of the innovative companies around the world.
  • It delivers its vision of digital transformation by providing practices and platforms to deliver software at speed.
  • Chef provides tested hardened software distributions.
  • Chef maintains security and stability with patches and bug fixes for the life of the product.
  • It provides an easy and quick way to get organized content to your Enterprise Automation Stack.
  • With its clock feature, you can keep things running on time.

7- Ansible

  • Ansible is an extremely simple IT automation engine.
  • It automates cloud provisioning, configuration management, application deployment, intra-service orchestration, and many other IT needs.
  • Ansible designed for multi-tier deployments since day one,
  • This tool doesn’t use agents and additional custom security infrastructure, so it’s easy to Deploy.
  • It YAML in the form of Ansible Playbooks.
  • Ansible works by connecting to your nodes and pushing out Ansible modules to them.
  • Ansible then executes these modules and removes them when finished.
  • There are no servers or databases required, your library of modules can reside on any machine.

8- Nagios

  • Nagios is a well-known server monitoring software on the market.
  • The flexibility, it provides to your servers with both agent-based and agentless, make it best fit in the zone.
  • There are over 5K different add-ons available to monitor your servers.
  • Their effective monitoring service allows your organization to quickly detect application, service, or process problems.
  • Nagios provides tools for monitoring of applications and application state including-
    -Windows Applications
    -Linux Applications
    -Unix Applications
    -Web Applications
  • Nagios XI provides monitoring of critical infrastructure components including applications, services, operating systems, network protocols, systems metrics, and network infrastructure.
  • Nagios Log Server simplifies the process of searching your log data. It notifies you when threats arise.

9- ELK

  • ELK is the acronym for three open-source projects: Elasticsearch, Logstash, and Kibana.
  • Elasticsearch is a search and analytics engine.
  • Logstash is a server-side data processing pipeline that ingests data from multiple sources simultaneously, transforms it, and then sends it to a “stash”.
  • Kibana lets users visualize data with charts and graphs in Elasticsearch.
  • The Elastic Stack is the next evolution of the ELK Stack.
  • It is an open-source, distributed, RESTful, JSON-based search engine.
  • Popular among users because of its scalability and flexibility.
  • Whether to analyze security events or freely slice and dice metrics, the worldwide community kept pushing boundaries with ELK.

10- Splunk

  • Splunk brings data to every question, decision, and action.
  • Accelerate innovation by acting fast.
  • It helps you solve problems with a platform built for real-time data.
  • Splunk amplifies your data’s impact.
  • It makes data accessible and valuable to IT, security and more.
  • It grows with your needs without compromising performance from gigs to petabytes.

“Devops is not a goal, but a never-ending process of continual improvement.”

–  Jez Humble