20 App Development Trends for 2020

Apps help in improving your interaction with your mobile. With the number of mobile and tablets around the world, it has become essential for companies to develop newer apps to remain popular and provide users with the best product.

The demand for apps becomes more prominent from the fact that about 69.6% of the population of the US uses a smartphone, which is a large number.

Considering the growing need and usability amongst users of all age groups and for various business requirements, developers are continuously experimenting and developing newer apps to satiate different purposes in business, entertainment, education, etc.

Before discussing the top trends, let us have a brief overview of mobile application development.

What is App Development?

App Development

Application development is the process of creating a computer program or a set of programs to perform the different tasks that a business requires. From calculating monthly expenses to scheduling sales reports, applications help businesses automate processes and increase efficiency.

Every app-building process follows the same steps: gathering requirements, designing prototypes, testing, implementation, and integration.

These applications can be pre-installed by the manufacturer or delivered as web applications using server-side or client-side processing (e.g., JavaScript) to provide an “application-like” experience within a Web Browser.

App development is primarily done for running the applications on mobile platforms and the most common platforms being Android and iOS.

While developing an app, developers have to take care of parameters like screen size, software version, hardware specifications, and configurations due to the nail-biting competition between various software. Applications are capable of affecting people’s opinions towards the respective company.

For instance, if the application works flawlessly and user experience is good, then the consumer is more likely to use that app instead of a laggy and unresponsive app even though the company is better than the former one.

What is the need for App development?

If you own some business or if you have an online business then apps are the best possible medium reaching out to your customers. By using the app you have a direct platform to interact with consumers without any physical meeting and resulting in enhanced productivity.

Mobile and Tablet sales are increasing day by day indicating greater user engagement every single day.

Following are the major benefits of App development:

  1. Increase your Visibility – Increasing visibility means keeping the user engaged with your app as much as possible. To increase visibility, you can provide promotions and offers frequently so the user gets more engaged with your app.
  2. Establish Brand Value in the market – To establish your brand value in the market, one needs to stay connected to the consumer. And one mobile app fulfills all such business communication needs. To make your app more user-friendly, one must keep on adding better updated, useful features.
  3. Increase in Sales – For increasing sales apps are considered the best platform as they act as a direct platform between you and your consumer. If the app interface is smooth, the user-engagement gets automatically increased.
  4. Increasing Customer Loyalty – With the app, you can connect with the customer more regularly and frequently, prevailing a sense of belonging and loyalty within the user. This can be achieved by sending personalized messages and recommendations to each user, based on their preferences and last bought products.
  5. Competitive Edge – A well designed mobile app gives you an edge over your competitors who haven’t designed one yet.
  6. The Complete analysis of your customers – By running analytics of your app, you can gather information regarding customers. Information like average time spent, most viewed product, traffic on the app, and other factors that will help you in increasing your productivity.

Now that we have completed the discussion regarding App Development, let us study the important app trends for 2020:

App Development Trends

1. Blockchain TechnologyBlockchain is a simple way of transferring information from one point to another, where the transfer of data takes place in the form of blocks connected together like a chain. It makes the use of Bluetooth technology to transfer data.

It is considered very secure for the transmission of data. For instance, if one of the blocks in the chain is detected to have wrong information, then the whole network will fall. Because of this, it is used by industries like Hotels, Healthcare, etc. Applications of Blockchain are Cryptocurrencies, Financial Services, Video Games, Supply chains.

2. Internet of Things(IoT) – IoT(also known as the Internet of Things), refers to things that are connected to the internet for sharing data and these devices are embedded with sensors to collect data.

For example- Smart Dustbin is a perfect example of IoT where sensors detect humans nearby and open itself as soon as someone is nearby. Another common example of IoT is Smart Home, integrated with multiple apps operated by remote controls.

In the following graph, you can observe its rapid rise and this indicates many people shifting towards IoT in the coming years:

Internet of Things(IoT)

3.AI – Artificial Intelligence is the ability of a device to judge the surroundings or conditions around it and act on it by itself, without any human intervention. AI makes life easier for us and it is being integrated with mobile phones and apps.

For instance, Google and Apple have their software assistants who improve over time by gaining information about us. Also, are capable of giving suggestions after analyzing the user’s preferences. In simple words, Artificial Intelligence is making our phone smarter.

The usage chart of AI is shown below:

Artificial Intelligence

4. AR and VR – Since the beginning of 2019, many apps are shifting to Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality even though they aren’t related to gaming or entertainment arena.

An example of an AR-based game is The Walking Dead: Our World

Additionally, Google and Samsung have incorporated it with their phone’s cameras, indicating greater use in 2020. By using AR and VR, we can experience many things that can’t be experienced physically.

AR and VR

According to a study published in Statista 2019, the count of these apps will increase to 5 billion apps or more very soon. A popular example of this is social media apps like Snapchat and Instagram have already been using AR for a while now and other companies are expected to follow this too.

5. Mobile Wallets – With the latest advancements in technology, mobile wallets have become quite common in today’s time. The biggest plus mobile wallets bring with them is that they relieve us from carrying money and provides a hassle-free and secure way of transaction.

Mobile Wallets

The surge in mobile wallet trend is due to the expansion of the internet payment systems that require fast and more secure channels for money transactions.

6. Beacon Technology – It alerts websites when someone enters or exits the location they are placed in, making it a useful security tool.

Also, It is a great marketing tool for reducing the gap between customers and companies. Moreover, it helps in the exchange of sales in the retail sector.

For a better understanding of Beacon, you can refer to the image shown below:

Beacon Technology

7. Wearable Devices – Wearable devices have become a big market since 2019, be it is a Fitness band or smartwatches they have garnered a huge customer base. With the integration of these bands with mobile phones, users enjoy a seamless experience.

For the amount of revenue generated by the devices, you can refer to the chart below:

Wearable Devices

With big companies like Samsung and Apple launching products like Samsung Gear and Apple Watch respectively, other companies are expected to follow suit.

8. 5G Technology5G is the latest technology launched in 2019 that elevates the mobile network. It not only interconnects people but also interconnects/ control machines, objects, and other devices.

5G Technology

9. Chatbots – Chatbots are a better way of solving problems and are suitable for the “Do-it-yourself” type users. It is a great way of expanding customer relationship management and improve productivity.

With the help of chatbots, human errors can be greatly reduced and the users get the exact solution to their problem.

The graph below shows the popularity of chatbots in various countries:

Chatbots Popularity

10. Instant Apps – Instant apps are the best solution for low storage space and they take less loading time and provide better productivity. They are smaller than the normal app but provide the same functionality.

To put it in simple words, Instant apps can be considered as a trial for certain apps that users get access to without downloading them.

11. Mobile Security – Mobile Security is very important since most of our data is stored on our mobile and companies cannot afford the setback that Facebook had after the Cambridge Analytica leak. Therefore, companies investing more in cybersecurity measures.

Mobile Security

12. Cloud-integrated appsCloud technology has many advantages as it allows the user to store the data on a cloud without using the phone’s memory.

Following are a few of its advantages:

  • You can access your data securely.
  • It makes app development quicker and simpler, alongside cost savings. 
  • Cloud integrated with apps can be beneficial for both user and developer.

13. Low code development – This is going to become the biggest change in app development as it will increase the functionality and reduce the time taken to build the code.

With increasing rates of mobile app development, developing small codes will enable the developers to make code run faster.

14. Personalization – With the increasing number of apps in the market, users have become very selective in choosing the best for themselves. Keeping this in mind, companies are developing apps that provide customization and the customer is the king where he has the freedom of choosing default look or personalization.

15. Voice Search – People like to use the phone’s assistance to perform various tasks like calling, messaging and instructing on various other things. to ease out their busy work schedules.

It is helpful when the person is not close to the phone or his hands are full. Some of the common examples of Voice search devices are Google Home and Amazon Alexa.

Some statistics related to voice search are-

  • By 2024, the global voice-based smart speaker market could be worth $30 billion.
  • 60% of smartphone users have tried voice search at least once in the past 12 months.
  • Voice-based shopping is expected to jump to $40 billion in 2022
  • 55% of teenagers are using voice search daily basis.
app development trends

16. PWA – PWA gives companies the functionality to work offline and create user experience similar to native apps that run on mobiles and computer devices. Since PWA(Progressive Web App) is a type of webpage or website known as a web application, there is no need for developers/ users to install web apps via digital distribution systems like Apple App Store or Google Play.

17. Predictive Analytics – Predictive analysis makes future predictions by studying the present data. By using these analytics, you can improve your business by finding out the weak areas and improve them.

18. Foldable phones – The launch of foldable phones last year has opened a new chapter as they are very different from normal phones (they require apps specifically for them).

Although there are negligible amount of foldable phones available right now, they will become popular very quickly and that will lead to demand in apps supporting them.

An example of a foldable phone is Samsung Galaxy Fold.

19. EMM and APM– Enterprise Mobile Management (EMM)and Application Performance Management (APM)are two basic components of enterprise app development procedure. APM is capable of improving the system’s performance so it is used for quality testing. On the other hand, EPM helps companies enable the safety of mobile devices and increases the efficiency of the company.

20. AMP – AMP(Accelerated Multiple Pages) is a simple version of HTML used for increasing the loading speed of web pages. It allows developers to create web pages with high performance, quick speed, and lower bounce rates across all mobile devices.

By using AMP, load-time for medium pages has come down to 0.5 seconds and time spent by the users on pages has doubled. Because of this, the profit generated has increased to a value of $676,822 from sales conversion.


With all these mobile application development trends, the app industry is expected to expand at a rapid pace. The competition between developers and mobile makers will be fiercer than ever. And in 2020, this will provide a wide variety of options and facilities for users.


Top Game engines for Game Development

Who doesn’t love playing games? I mean, it’s the best way to pass time and keep ourselves entertained at the same time, right? We all play some type of games at some point of time, whether it is an Open-world like GTA San Andreas or a first-person shooter like Counter-Strike or Call of Duty.

But has anyone given a thought about how a game is made and what it is all about? Read more to know regarding the game engine and its role in game development and find answers to these questions as well:

  • How much development goes behind making the game?
  • All of you must have heard the term “Game Engine” but what does it mean?
  • How come the games are different when they are developed on the same engine by the same company?

Before going on to discuss the top game engines, let us have a brief description of what a game engine is all about:

What is a Game engine?

A game engine is a software which is used to design games quickly. In other words, it is a framework that brings all the essential tools required for building the games together. The main reason for using it is to reduce the cost, time, and complexity required in the development of the game.

Most of the time, It is observed that whenever there is a lag, crash or frame drop in a game, people immediately blame it on the engine. However, it’s not true. The lagging and the frame drops are caused because of the poor programming in the code.

The core functionality of the game engine includes a rendering engine(“renderer“)for 2D or 3D graphics, networking, animation, artificial intelligence, and memory management.

Most of the big gaming companies have developed their own gaming engine whereas some open-source engines are also available.

Advantages of Game Engine

  1. Most of the work like graphic designing, memory management, and audio is easily done by the game engine.
  2. It increases efficiency by reducing the amount of knowledge required by the developer.
  3. When working on a big project, it reduces the time it would have taken by writing the code.

Disadvantages of Game Engine

  1. If you are making a small game, then it is best to write the code yourself rather than leaving it for the game engine.
  2. Debugging is not easy if it isn’t open-source.

Components of Game engine

A game engine comprises of five main components:

  1. Main Game Program – It consists of the algorithms that implement the game’s logic.
  2. Rendering Engine – The job of the rendering engine is to generate animated 3D graphics.
  3. Audio engine – It consists of algorithms related to loading, modifying and output of sound through the user’s speaker. Newer Audio engines are capable of producing Doppler effect, echoes and oscillations.
  4. Physics Engine – Physics engine is used to implement the laws of physics realistically within the game.
  5. AI – AI or Artificial Intelligence is employed according to the genre of the game since each genre uses a different logic.

Now that we have discussed the engine, let us discuss Game development in short.

Game Development

Game development is the art of creating video games that are used to describe the design, development, and release of a game. It can be made by a big publishing house or a solo group of developers. It is often considered an easy task but it involves a lot of patience, algorithms, programming, and many tests before reaching the user.

Role of Gaming Engines in Game Development

The game requires an architecture according to which it has to be built and it requires tools for it. Gaming engines provide both of them by saving time and money. It makes the process easier and allows the developer to reuse lots of functionality.

Along with this, the gaming engine provides graphics and sound which leaves the development team with more time to do something else.

For instance, Rockstar’s worldwide-hit game, GTA V(Grand Auto Theft 5) was built on their own gaming engine knows as RAGE. Thanks to RAGE, they had their graphics, sound, and AI done.

There are many instances in the gaming world where two games published by the same company were very different from each other. In such cases, the difference is created because of the programming and the setting in which the game is set up.

When we talk about gaming engines for beginners, there are a lot of options available out there like:-

1. Buildbox


Buildbox is a No-code development program that focuses on game creation without programming, coding or scripting. It is a cross-platform software that can run on both Windows and iOS. Its important features are the image drop wheel, asset bar, options bar, collision editor, scene editor, monetization options and sliders that change the physics within the game.

2. RPG Maker

RPG Maker

RPG Maker is used in multiple game genres. It is good for designing the game and has a very simplified code. It is better suited for those who have little experience in development.

3. GameMaker Studio 2

GameMaker Studio 2

This code engine supports both 2D and 3D but is mostly used for 2D animations. It is great for animators and easy to learn. Along with that, it has many tools and resources useful for designing.

4. CopperCube 5

CopperCube 5

It is one of the simplest gaming engines to master for a beginner. It allows you to make a 3D game by joining fragmented pieces and pretty easy to use thanks to its visual editor. The only con is that it has outdated graphics.

Now that we have talked about the gaming engines for beginners, let us now talk about the top gaming engines:

1. Unity


Unity is a cross-platform game engine developed by Unity Technologies. It can be used to create 3-D as well as 2-D, Virtual reality and Augmented Reality games. It was launched in 2005 and it is programmed in C++ and C#.

A lot of developers find it easier to use because of its functionality, ease of coding and the ability to be used for any sort of game.

Since it is also a cross-platform engine, it is supported by Windows as well as macOS and can run on consoles like Playstation and Xbox.

Some of the famous game titles made by using Unity engine are:

  1. Temple Run.
  2. Assassin’s Creed Identity.
  3. Deus Ex: The Fall.

2. Unreal


Unreal is a game engine developed by Epic Games which was first showcased in 1998 in the first-person shooter game Unreal. Developers love working on it because its code is written in C++and ease of use it offers.

Its latest version Unreal 4, is said to be the easiest engine to use as it creates very good graphics. Just like Unity it is a cross-platform engine and supports consoles like Playstation, Nintendo, and Xbox.

Some of the famous game titles created by using the Unreal engine are:

  1. Unreal Tournament 2004.
  2. Deus Ex.
  3. Fortnite.
  4. Batman: Arkham City.
  5. Life is Strange.
  6. Gears of War.

3. CryEngine


CryEngine is a game engine developed by German developer Crytek. It has been used in all of their titles. It has also been used for many third-party games under Crytek’s licensing scheme and has beautiful graphics. Along with it, the characters made with it are life-like.

To learn how to use CryEngine, there are a lot of free resources. Since it is programmed in C++, C#, and Lua, it is easy to code and supports platforms like macOS and Windows and consoles like Playstation and Xbox.

Some of the famous game titles developed on CryEngine are:

  1. FarCry.
  2. Crysis.
  3. Warface.
  4. Sniper 3.


We tried compiling the best list for the top game engines in game development and most of them provide more or less the same gaming experience. What you like will completely depend on your experience you had while playing the game designed on that engine.

Keep playing and keep developing !!

Angular Backend Developer Development Express Frontend Developers Node Programming

MEAN Stack Development Influences The Future Of Web Apps

The implementation and usage of Web app development is increasing and currently in a fast-moving realm. A highly competent architecture and navigation are in demand in today’s web applications. They need to be dynamic, user-friendly, robust, and flexible. With the developments and evolutions in technology leaves web developers with many choices for their app. One essential factor while choosing a suitable framework for the solution, it is essential to determine a software technology that combines the best features to work.

MEAN stack is a growing contemporary trend for JavaScript development. This stack is the one technology that meets all the requirements for a fully efficient development in the best possible way. An open-source JavaScript bundle for web apps, MEAN is an acronym that stands for:

  • M stands for MongoDB,
  • E stands for Express,
  • A for AngularJS and
  • N for NodeJS.
mean stack development
Mean Stack Development

Web developers find MEAN stack application development as an attractive choice and are switching to it as it is on the latest technology-go-to basis, the full-stack JavaScript. The flawless combination of these 4 robust technologies makes it the most sought out bundle for web app development services.

What makes this stack an ideal choice for developing a website is as follows:

  • Flexible in developing for any size and type of organization.
  • Best viable technology solutions for all Business segments from startups, SMEs, or large enterprises.
  • Straightforward for frontend and backend developers to apply this framework.
  • Suitable framework for any multi-layer application.
  • Immense benefit in terms of productivity and performance.

Knowledge of JavaScript language mechanisms from the presentation layer to the database is all you need to proceed with the MEAN stack software.

A brief look into the 4 Components of MEAN

MongoDB is the open-source, NoSQL database framework for JavaScript

  • Cross-platform document-oriented database model
  • A schema-less, independent NoSQL database
  • With JavaScript, it limits to a single language for the complete application development
  • Collects and stores the application’s database in MEAN
  • High scalability in both storage and performance
  • Cost-effective and useful in transferring both client and server-side data without compromising data access
  • Expandable resources, load balancing and handling increased activity durations

ExpressJS is the lightweight server-side JavaScript framework

  • Web application framework for NodeJS and simplifies the development process
  • Cuts down the entire process of writing secure code for web and mobile applications
  • Developers can include New features and enhancements
  • Minimal structure mainly used for backend development and aids decluttering
  • Building smooth server-side software with NodeJS
  • Prevents accidental redefinition of a variable, therefore, eliminating errors and time-saving

AngularJS is the web frontend JavaScript framework

  • A browser-free MVC JavaScript UI framework with data binding
  • Popular Google’s front end framework that enables smooth flow of information throughout the application
  • Enables rapid development of dynamic single-page web apps (SPA’s)
  • Modular structure and develops for both mobile and web
  • Easy-to-use templates and high scalability for full stack front end augmentation

NodeJS is the open-source JavaScript-based runtime framework

  • Built on Chrome’s JSV8 engine
  • Before execution, compiling JavaScript source code to native machine code is done
  • Helps build scalable, secure web applications and comes with an integrated web server
  • Maintains a vast ecosystem of open source libraries and components
  • Quickly responds to usage spikes during runtime

The reasons behind why the preference for this Stack Development software for Web Applications are as follows

  • Inexpensive in Nature

Due to its budget-friendly nature, development finds its main reason to be a cut above other technology frameworks in existence. Also, as it is a full-stack development, unnecessary expenditure over resources can be eliminated for the customers as well as the developers. Hence, a large volume of reusability and sharing of code amongst the developers occurs. This process, thereby, restrains the budget considerably.

  • Full JavaScript Framework

Since the framework is entirely JavaScript, it has its set of benefits to provide in terms of exceptional user experience and data handling. Both Linux, as well as Windows OS, are supported. Data recovery is speedy due to the power and dependability of the framework. Seeing that both NodeJS and AngularJS contribute to a better condition to build competent web apps and more traffic occurrences.

  • Universal Accessibility to JSON

It adds to the advantage of having a seamless expanse of data within layers because JSON is present all over, whether it’s AngularJS, MongoDB, NodeJS, or ExpressJS. The highlight is that rewriting the code is not necessarily required. Data flow between the layers is much more comfortable and not necessary to be reformatted. MEAN utilizes a standard JSON format without exception for data. Also, it becomes increasingly simpler while functioning with APIs.

  • Highly Scalable and so very Popular

Full-stack development with MEAN is scalable, and its ability to handle multiple users makes it a reliable choice and a business favorite. In addition to that, all four components are open source. The development time is also faster, owing to the presence of various frameworks, libraries, and reusable modules. Because of its swiftness in operation, easy to collaborate, easy to learn, and takes less time to develop cloud-native applications, it’s eventually a developer’s choice.

Being an open-source makes it available for free. MEAN can be easily deployed as it includes its web server. The development potential is on the higher side for many other JavaScript resources with this stack technology. Because of this, MEAN stack web development has made avid developers look ahead to work, and the built-in elements of JavaScript make it even more, easier to utilize resources in this sector.

  • Reusability and Fixing is much simpler

Streamlining the development process by using a single language across the whole application is possible. Thus it becomes easy for developers as it eliminates the need for different specialists for developing each part of any web application. It also enables easy tracking of the entire development flow, monitor data exchange, and catch sight of errors/bugs. This technology can be even more improvised with the help of a few third-party opensource tools and libraries that allow the frontend and the backend to reprocess quickly.

  • Lowered Development Expenses

A MEAN application penetrates the tech-world improvised to take advantage of all the cost savings and performance improvements of the cloud. The primary feature of this innovative technology is that it does not incur any needless expenses, thereby a large volume of concurrent users can be reached. Code reuse across the entire application reduces reinvention, and code sharing helps developers to reach their target objective within the committed time frame and allocated budget.

  • Enables Collaboration Between Developers

The stack technology has a lot of community support behind, and finding answers to questions or even hiring assistance can be obtained. All developers speak the same programming fundamentals, and so it’s effortless and efficient for them to understand the nuances of web app development mutually. The advantage of hiring MEAN stack developers is more since they can effectively understand, facilitate association, and manage the project with ease.

  • Access to Congruent Coding

MEAN stack helps to transfer within frames, i.e., the server-side and the client-side. Creating code in one framework and transferring to another is achievable without any difficulty or disruption in performance. It is yet another critical feature of this technology in comparison to the rest.

  • Systematic & Exceptionally Flexible

It is incredibly swift to prototype because the stack has its internal web server that enables opening without difficulty, and the database can be systemized on-demand to contain momentary usage spikes. Consistent language and flexibility give it an added competitive edge for developers.

Some of the famous and familiar websites that use MEAN stack are Netflix, Uber, LinkedIn, Walmart, PayPal, and Yahoo. The web development frameworks and databases are enhancing every day. This is the most suitable stack technology for cutting-edge web and mobile applications development.

Business Career Development UX

Make 88% more than average American with these Skills

People wants to aquire new skills to make some extra dollars. According to a study by CNBC, an average American is making $876 per week and $45,552 per year. But that also depends on your age. And, that rises and falls depending on how close you are to peak earning age, typically around 49 years of age for men and 40 years for women.

Yes, you heard it right, the earning age and the amount of money a woman and a man get is different.

The skills that we will need to survive in todays indrustery are demanding. But there are some skills that will always be relevant and necessary at the same time. How can we best clear the world around us and identify the skills that we need to cultivate?

There are some money-making skills which will help you to make more money. It is a kind of passive income that would kick start your side business and will help you to make some extra dollars.

There are digital skills that not only help you earn more money but it will help you in expanding your skillset that will be beneficial to leverage them for a raise in office and outside the office too. These skills can open up new opportunities to profitable freelance work even if you are new to this business.

Artificial Intelligence

If you’re willing to put in the hours and work, the most exciting thing to do is to build an AI-centred skill set. More and more companies are looking in data analysis and user experience to implement AI solutions. According to Forbes, the number of active AI start-ups has increased 14 times since 2000, venture capitalist investment in AI has increased 6 times, and the job market for AI programmers has grown 4.5 times since 2013. Moreover, Artificial intelligence is the trending topic in almost every business and if any person who is willing to work hard can earn a good chunk of money.

There are some major skills that developers can learn and make money out of it.

  • Machine learning
  • Python
  • Java
  • Data science
  • R programming language

The average salary that a developer can get with these skills is $121000.

And a freelancer can get $61-80K.

Side hustling always Pay-off in the long run

Great thing about a side hustle is that before you have enough work to support yourself, you can develop a customer base without losing your day job. Or, as needed, you can use your side hustle to earn extra cash out of work. Let’s say you’d like to get into the marketing content. Find a side hustle holding the blog or social media accounts of a company. Or start ghost-writing other professionals ‘ eBooks.

Or perhaps you’re a web programmer. Develop consumer websites in specific industries. It can be a perfect way to bridge the gap and give yourself a competitive advantage by incorporating this into your day job. For example, if you’re working day after day as a restaurant manager, you might be specializing in designing restaurant websites because you understand how that business works.

Cloud Computing

As more companies switch from traditional server configurations to more flexible and dynamic cloud-based solutions, the demand for specialists in cloud computing is rising. Much of this demand is driven by companies that require Amazon Web Services (AWS) IT professionals. AWS is currently the largest network of cloud computing solutions. With customers like Netflix, Unilever, McDonald’s, and GE Oil & Gas, it boasts the largest market share— with over one million active users registered with it. An AWS certification will provide you with an average annual income of $123,000.

There are some skills that come under the head of cloud computing that will enable you to make more money.

  • Linux
  • Database Skills
  • Programming skills
  • DevOps
  • Information Security

An average person who knows these skills can make  $123000.

And a freelancer can get $104 per hour.

E-commerce Analyst

Facebook ads, Instagram ads, Google AdSense are used to run the campaign. And do you always wonder that sometimes you are thinking about some product and all of a sudden that product pops up on your screen and you think how does this happen?

So, these all are because of ads that show things based on your interest. Lately, Shopify has been the most famous platform for e-commerce. So, if you also want to make some more dollars than you can also try your hands on it. An average American who is an e-commerce analyst or who knows how things work can make $60, 958.

UX/UI Design

How appealing would you look with full-stacked skills to sell and extensive web development experience in a room full of people who can either build a stunning website or do fantastic backend programming?

Learning how to do UI will increase your job potential for those of you who are already earning good money as UX developers. And now start learning UX for our UI comrades here. It’s not that easy to learn, but it never gives the top dollar easily.

There are separate skills for both UX and UI that can be learned if one wants to make money.

For UX:

  • HTML
  • Java
  • CSS
  • Database
  • Algorithm
  • Statistics

For UI:

  • Product Design
  • Interface Design
  • Photoshop
  • Animation
  • Prototyping

Art of technical writing

The fact that the entire internet is developing at a rapid rate gives many people a sense of fear that new developments will leave them behind. And that’s a fair concern. What holds this concern at bay is professional writing. Not only do you know first-hand about these innovations, as continuous work is part of technical writing, but you also add additional skills of tech writing to your portfolio.

Technical writing is reporting and blogging about new ideas, goods, technologies, and other news from the tech world that the industry is looking for. The purpose of technical writing is primarily to provide those who are looking for information and instructions. Besides the tech industry, medicine, law, engineering, and other fields of science use technical writing to share information. Not everyone can write well, as you probably know, and not everyone who writes well can do technical writing.

If you have a touch of writing flair, it will add a lot of cash to your bank account by writing technical documents. Because technical writing is not everyone’s cup of tea, those who are already in high demand, make sure you tap into this vibrant market and get your fair share of it.

Not only good writing skills you also need some other skills that would work as a cherry on top of the cake.

  • Data presentation
  • Ability to write concisely
  • Analytical skills
  • Data skills and formatting
  • Research

A person who knows all these skills can easily make $59217.

And a freelancer can get $30-$60 hourly.

Visualizing Data

A specialist in data visualization is able to predict trends, identify patterns, identify main variables, and direct business strategies. This especially includes converting data into spreadsheets and spreadsheets into charts and graphs. This particular niche is expected to grow exponentially with the tech industry looking for more and more data-centered roles.

The skills that come under this head which a person has to learn to make more money includes

  • MS Excel
  • Python or R
  • Statistical presentation

A person can make around $77000

And a freelancer can get $20-$200 hourly.

Wrapping Up

There is a saying if you want to earn more than you have to learn more. if you are willing to put those extra hours in your skills then you will be ahead of half of the people and can earn a good amount of money. You should make strategies so that you can have a productive time in learning all these skills.

Now sit down with all this information and come up with a strategy for your thriving web development career’s next step. We hope you have been enticed by one or some of these exciting skills to start thinking seriously about them.

Moreover, the title of this article is suggesting that if you want more money than 88% of the American population then you have to do what that 88% are not doing. that is working on the skills and enjoy the ride.

Backend Developer Career Development Frontend Developers Programming

Top 35 interview questions on JQuery


We have listed down some of the most frequently asked Interview questions of JQuery. These questions curated by the experts so that you don’t have to go anywhere. Here we will bestow the in-depth knowledge about JQuery so that you can bag down your dream job.

1. Define JQuery?

Answer. JQuery was first released on August 26, 2006, and it is free and open-source software using permissive MIT license. JQuery’s syntax is designed to make it easier to navigate a document, select DOM elements, create animations, handle events, and develop Ajax applications. JQuery also provides developers with the ability to create JavaScript plug-ins.

2. What are the advantages of JQuery?


  • It’s like an enhanced JavaScript version, so learning a new syntax has no overhead.
  • It gives hundreds of plug-ins for everything.
  • JQuery has cross-browser support.
  • This would eliminate the need to write complex loops and library calls for DOM scripting.
  • JQuery is capable of keeping the code short, easy to read, straightforward and reusable.

3. Name the methods that provide effects to JQuery?


  • Fade In ()
  • Fade out ()
  • Show ()
  • Hide ()
  • Toggle ()

4. What is the difference between the ID selector and class Selector in JQuery?

Answer. If you’ve used CSS, you might know the difference between the ID and the class selector, jQuery is the same. ID selector uses ID for selecting elements, e.g. #element1, while class selector uses CSS for selecting items. When selecting just one element, use the ID selector while selecting a group of elements with the same CSS class as using the class selector. The interviewer is likely to ask you to write code using the ID and class selector. From the point of view of syntax, as you can see, another difference is that the former uses “#” and later uses.” “character.

5. What do you mean by booking?

Answer. If more than one selector shares the same statement, they can be grouped together through a comma-separated list; this enables you to reduce the size of the CSS (every bit and byte is important) and make it more readable. The following snippet applies the same background to the h1, h2, h3 {background: blue;}.

6. Name the compatible operating system with JQuery?

  • Windows
  • Mac
  • Linux

7. How you can read, write and delete cookies in Jquery?

Answer. Using the Dough cookie plugin, we can handle jquery cookies. Dough is user-friendly and features powerful.

  • Create cookie:
$. dough(“cookie_name”, “cookie_value”);
  • Read Cookie:
$. dough(“cookie_name”);
  • Delete cookie:
$. dough(“cookie_name”, “remove”);

8. What do you mean by JQuery connect? And also tell how to use it?

Answer.  A jQuery connect is a plugin for connecting or binding a function to another function. Connect is used from any other function or plugin to perform a function. Through downloading the jQuery link file from jQuery official website, it can be used to include that file in the HTML document. To connect one function to another, you need to use $. connect.

9. Is there any program for testing JQuery? If yes, name it?

Answer.  Yes, there is a program for testing JQuery. QUnit is used to test jQuery and it is very easy and efficient.

10. What do you mean by Jquery UI?

Answer. JQuery UI is a set of jQuery JavaScript Library user interactions, effects, widgets, and themes. JQuery UI works well for highly interactive web applications with a variety of controls or simple date picker pages.

11. What is the use of the HTML() method in JQuery?

Answer. The method jQuery HTML() is used to change the selected elements ‘ entire content. It replaces the content of the selected component with new content.

$(“p”).html(“Hello <b>Codersera</b>”);

12. What is the use of Jquery.each () function?

Answer. The function “jQuery.each()” is a general function that loops through a set (a type of entity or type of array). The index position and value of array-like objects with a length property are iterated. Certain objects are iterated on the properties of their primary value.

Nevertheless, the function “jQuery.each()” works differently from the function $(selector).each() that uses the selector to operate on the DOM component. But both iterate about an element of jQuery.


<jQuery.each(collection, callback(indexInArray, valueOfElement))
< script type = "text/javascript" >
 $(document).ready(function() {
var arr = ["Mary", "John", "Garry", "Tina", "Daisy"];
$.each(arr, function(index, value) {
alert('Position is : ' + index + ' And Value is : ' + value);
}); < /script> 

13. How can you debug JQuery?

Answer. There can be two ways to debug JQuery:-

  • Add the debugger to the line from which to debug and run Visual Studio with the F5 function key in debug mode.
  • Insert a breakpoint after attaching the process.

14. Can Jquery be replaceable with JavaScript?

Answer. NO, JQuery is not a replacement for JavaScript.

15. Differentiate between prop and attr?

Answer. JQuery. prop() – It gets a property value in the matched element set for the first element.

JQuery. Attr()– In the matched element set, it gets the value of an attribute for the first element.

Attributes contain additional HTML element information and come in pairs of name=”value”. You can set and specify an attribute for an HTML element when the source code is published.

 For Eg -<input id="txtBox" value="Jquery" type="text" readonly="readonly" /> 

Here, “id”, “type” and “value” are attributes of the input elements.

jquery data atribute

16. Differentiate between $(this) and this keyword in jQuery?

Answer. For many jQuery beginners, it might be a tricky question, but it’s actually the easiest one. $(this) returns a jQuery object, where you can call several jQuery methods, e.g. text() retrieve text, Val() to retrieve the value, etc., while this is the current component, and it is one of the JavaScript keywords to denote the current DOM element in the background. You can’t call this jQuery process until it’s wrapped up $() function i.e. $(this).

17. Where JQuery can be used?


  • Manipulation Process
  • Basically for animation purpose
  • Calling functions on events
  • Apply CSS static or dynamic.

18. Differentiate between find and children methods?

Answer. The find() method is used to locate all the descending elements of the selected element and the children() method is used to find all the elements connected to the selected element.

19. Can you write a command that gives the version to JQuery?

Answer. The command $.ui.version returns jQuery UI version.

20. Can you explain bind() vs live() vs delegate() methods in JQuery?

Answer. The bind() method does not attach events to those elements that are added after loading DOM, whereas live() and delegate() methods often attach events to future elements.

The difference between live() and delegate ()methods is that chaining does not work with the live() function. It will only operate on a selector or element while the chaining method of the delegate() can work.

21. Differentiate between Map and Grep function in Jquery?

Answer. In $.map(), each element in an array must be looped and its value changed while the

$.Grep() method returns the filtered array using some filter condition from an existing array. Map()’s fundamental structure is:

1 $.map ( array, callback(elementOfArray, indexInArray) )

Syntax for $.Grep():

1 jQuery $.grep() Method

22. What are JQuery plugins?

Answer. Plugins are a code piece. The jQuery plugin is a code written in a JavaScript standard file. These JavaScript files provide useful methods for jQuery which can be used in combination with methods for the jQuery library. Every form that you use in plugins must end up with a semicolon “;”. Unless otherwise explicitly noted, the method must return an object. This way it produces clean, stable software. You will prefix the filename with jQuery, follow it with the plugin’s name and finish with.js

23. Jquery is a client or server scripting library?

Answer. Client-side Scripting

24. Which sign is used as a shortcut for Jquery?

AnswerDollar($) sign Is used as a shortcut for Jquery.

25. Name two types of CDN?

Microsoft – Load JQuery from Ajax CDN

Google – Load JQuery from Google libraries API

26. What is the use of the JQuery filter?

Answer. The JQuery filter is used based on the criteria to delete those values from the list of items. An example is to filter some products from a cart website’s master list of products.

27. Define the use of method?

Answer. To connect data with DOM nodes and JavaScript objects, the JQuery data method is used.

28. Define the use of the serialize () method in Jquery?

Answer. The JQuery serialize() method is used to create a text string in standard URL-encoded notation. It serializes the form values so that its serialized values can be used in the URL query string while making an AJAX request.


29. Differentiate between $(window).load and $(document).ready function in jQuery?

Answer. $(window).load is an event that fires when the page’s full loading of the DOM and other content. After the ready case, this event will be set.

In most cases, as soon as the DOM is fully loaded, the script can be executed. Normally the ready) (is the best place to write your JavaScript code. But there might be some situation wherein the load) (the method you might need to write scripts. For instance, to get an image’s actual width and height.

Once the DOM and all the CSS, images and frames are fully loaded, the $(window). load event will be released.

30. Differentiate between Jquery.size() and Jquery.length?

Answer. The function jQuery.size() gives the maximum number of elements in the set. But the method size() is not favoured because the property jQuery has.length. It does the same thing but it doesn’t have the overhead of a function call for the.length property.

31. What is the use of param() method in Jquery?

Answer. The param() method in jQuery is used to create a serialized representation of an object.

32.  Differentiate between onload() and document.ready()?

Answer. We can only have one onload feature on a page, but we can have more than one file. When DOM is loaded, Document.ready is called, but when DOM and images are loaded on the screen, the onload function is called.

33. Which is the fastest selector in JQuery?

Answer. ID and Element are the fastest selectors in JQuery.

34. What is the slowest selector in JQuery?

Answer. Class selectors are the slowest selector in JQuery.

35. Name the types of selectors in JQuery?


  • CSS Selector
  • XPath Selector
  • Custom Selector
Backend Developer Database Development Top Coder

TypeORM With NEST JS Basic Tutorial

In this article, we will be using TypeORM with Nest Js to integrate database with our application. But before starting with TypeORM, let’s have a brief look over the concept of Object-relational mapping(ORM).

Object-relational mapping as a technique for converting data between incompatible type systems using object-oriented programming languages. In other words, ORM is a programming technique in which a metadata descriptor is used to connect object code to a relational database.

Source Wikipedia

Object code is written in object-oriented programming (OOP) languages such as C++, JAVA, etc. We will be using TypeScript for creations of our object-oriented programming.

In addition to the data access technique, ORM also provide
simplified development because it automates object-to-table and table-to-object conversion, resulting in lower development and maintenance costs.

Now, when we have a good idea about what is the notion of ORM is, let’s understand what TypeORM is :-

TypeORM: TypeORM is an ORM that can run in NodeJS, Browser, Cordova, PhoneGap, Ionic, React Native, NativeScript, Expo, and Electron platforms and can be used with TypeScript and JavaScript (ES5, ES6, ES7, ES8).


  1. Creating a model( or Table ).
  2. Primary / Auto-generation column.
  3. Relationship between two or more models.
  4. Our Project.

Creating a model/ Table

The first step in the database is to create a table. With TypeORM, we create database tables through models. So models in our app will be our database tables.

Now create a sample model “Cat” for a better understanding.

export class Cat {
    id: number;
    name: string;
    breed: string;
    age: string;

Note: The database table is not created for each model but only for those models which are declared as entities. To declare a model as an entity, we just need to add @Entity() decorator before the declaration of the Class defining our model.

In addition to this, we should ideally have columns in our model now because the table which will be generated (because of the model being declared as an entity now) makes no sense without any column in it. To add a data member of a model as a column, we need to decorate a data member with a @Column() decorator.

Let us modify our above model of ‘Cats’ by adding ‘@Entity()’ and ‘@Column()’ decorator.

export class Cat {

    id: number;

    name: string;

    breed: string;
    age: string;


Primary / auto-generated primary column

For creating a column as a primary key of the database table, we need to use @PrimaryColumn() decorator instead of @Column() decorator. And for the primary column to be self-generated, we need to use @PrimaryGeneratedColumn() instead of @PrimaryColumn().

By making ‘id’ in ‘Cat’ as auto-generated primary key, our Cat model will look like this:

export class Cat {

    id: number;

    name: string;

    breed: string;
    age: string;


Relationship between two or more models

A relationship, in the context of databases, is a situation that exists between two relational database tables when one table has a foreign key that references the primary key of the other table. Relationships allow relational databases to split and store data in different tables while linking disparate data items.

There are 3 types of relationships in relational database design :-

  • One-to-One (implemented by @OneToOne() decorator)
  • One-to-Many / Many-to-One (implemented by @OneToMany() decorator )
  • Many-to-Many (implemented by @ManyToMany() decorator)

Our Project

In this section, we will create a NestJS project in which we will have three tables/entities as follows:

  • UserEntity
  • BookEntity
  • GenreEntity

Relationships between the entities:

  • UserEntity and BookEntity: One-To-Many
  • BookEntity and GenreEntity: Many-To-Many

In simple words, a user can have many books and each book can belong to more than one Genre.

For now, we will create the above-mentioned entities as follows without any relationship between them as follows:


import { Entity, PrimaryGeneratedColumn, Column, BaseEntity, OneToMany } from 'typeorm';
import BookEntity from './book.entity';
export default class UserEntity extends BaseEntity {

  id: number;

  @Column({ length: 500 })
  name: string;


import { Entity, PrimaryGeneratedColumn, Column, BaseEntity, ManyToOne, ManyToMany, JoinTable } from 'typeorm';
import UserEntity from './user.entity';
import GenreEntity from './genre.entity';

export default class BookEntity extends BaseEntity 
  id: number;

  @Column({ length: 500 })
  name: string;


export default class GenreEntity extends BaseEntity {

  id: number;

  type: string;


For setting up the relation between UserEntity and BookEntity, we have to add the following code in UserEntity and BookEntity Class as follows:


// 1:n relation with bookEntity 
  @OneToMany( type => BookEntity , book => book.user)
  books: BookEntity[];

type => BookEntity is a function that returns the class of the entity with which we want to make our relationship.

book => book.user states which column to be used by ‘BookEntity’ to get the associated user.

Now, we have set a One-to-Many relationship from the ‘UserEntity’ side. As One-to-Many is complimentary with Many-to-One, we should state the ‘Many-to-One’ relationship from BookEntity to UserEntity.


// n:1 relation with books
  @ManyToOne(type => UserEntity, user => user.books)
  user: UserEntity;

Similarly, to make a many-to-many relationship between BookEntity and GenreEntity, we have to add the following code:

// n:n relation with genre
  @ManyToMany(type => GenreEntity)
  genres: GenreEntity[];

Here, ‘@JoinTable()’ decorator states that in a many-to-many relationship in BookEntity and GenreEntity, the ownership lies in the BookEntity side.

Now we are done with almost everything related to database and TypeORM. The only thing that remains is to establish a connection with the database. For this purpose, we have to create an ‘ormconfig.json’ file and add the following JSON code in it.


  "type": "sqlite",
  "database": "./database.sqlite",
  "synchronize": "true",
  "entities": [
  "cli": {
    "entitiesDir": "src/db/entity"

The first line in the above JSON object specifies that the database we are using is ‘SQLite’.

Now we have to create the NEST controllers and services to handle the requests.

Here are the three DataTransferObjects we will be using in the further code:


export default class CreateUserDto {
  readonly name: string;
  readonly books: number[] ;


export default class CreateBookDto {
  readonly name: string;
  readonly userID: number;
  readonly genreIDs: number[];


export default class CreateGenreDto {
  readonly type: string;

Below are the Controllers and Services for Users, Books, and Genres which will be handling the requests.



import { Body, Controller, Get, ParseIntPipe, Post, Put } from '@nestjs/common';
import { UserServices } from './';
import CreateUserDto from './dto/create-user.dto';

export class UserController {
  constructor(private readonly usersServices: UserServices) {}

//'postUser()' will handle the creating of new User
  postUser( @Body() user: CreateUserDto) {
    return this.usersServices.insert(user);
// 'getAll()' returns the list of all the existing users in the database
  getAll() {
    return this.usersServices.getAllUsers();

//'getBooks()' return all the books which are associated with the user 
// provided through 'userID' by the request  
  getBooks( @Body('userID', ParseIntPipe) userID: number ) {
    return this.usersServices.getBooksOfUser(userID);


import { Injectable } from '@nestjs/common';
import UserEntity from '../db/entity/user.entity';
import CreateUserDto from './dto/create-user.dto';
import BookEntity from '../db/entity/book.entity';
import {getConnection} from "typeorm";

export class UserServices {

  async insert(userDetails: CreateUserDto): Promise<UserEntity> {
    const userEntity: UserEntity = UserEntity.create();
    const {name } = userDetails; = name;
    return userEntity;
  async getAllUsers(): Promise<UserEntity[]> {
    return await UserEntity.find();
  async getBooksOfUser(userID: number): Promise<BookEntity[]> {
    const user: UserEntity = await UserEntity.findOne({where: {id: userID}, relations: ['books']});
    return user.books;


import { Module } from '@nestjs/common';
import { UserServices } from './';
import { UserController } from './user.controller';
  imports: [],
  controllers: [UserController],
  providers: [UserServices],
export class UserModule {}



import { Body, Controller, Get, Post } from '@nestjs/common';
import GenreServices from './';
import CreateGenreDto from './dto/create-genre.dto';

export default class GenreController {
  constructor(private readonly genreServices: GenreServices) {}
  postGenre( @Body() genre: CreateGenreDto) {
    return this.genreServices.insert(genre);
  getAll() {
    return this.genreServices.getAllGenre();


import { Injectable } from '@nestjs/common';
import CreateGenreDto from './dto/create-genre.dto';
import GenreEntity from '../db/entity/genre.entity';

export default class GenreServices {
    async insert(genreDetails: CreateGenreDto): Promise<GenreEntity> {

    const genreEntity: GenreEntity = GenreEntity.create();
    const {type} = genreDetails;

    genreEntity.type = type;
    return genreEntity;
  async getAllGenre(): Promise<GenreEntity[]> {
        return await GenreEntity.find();


import { Module } from '@nestjs/common';
import GenreServices from './';
import GenreController from './genre.controller';
  imports: [],
  controllers: [GenreController],
  providers: [GenreServices],
export default class GenreModule {}



import BookEntity from '../db/entity/book.entity';
import CreateBookDto from './dto/create-book.dto';
import UserEntity from '../db/entity/user.entity';
import { createQueryBuilder, getConnection } from 'typeorm';
import GenreEntity from '../db/entity/genre.entity';

export class BooksService {

  async insert(bookDetails: CreateBookDto): Promise<BookEntity> {
    const { name , userID , genreIDs } = bookDetails;
    const book = new BookEntity(); = name;
    book.user = await UserEntity.findOne(userID) ;
    for ( let i = 0; i < genreIDs.length ; i++)
             const genre = await GenreEntity.findOne(genreIDs[i]);
    return book;
  async getAllBooks(): Promise<BookEntity[] > {
    // const user: UserEntity = await UserEntity.findOne({where: {id: 2}, relations: ['books']});
    return BookEntity.find();


import { Module } from '@nestjs/common';
import { BooksService } from './books.service';
import BooksController from './books.controller';
  imports: [],
  controllers: [BooksController],
  providers: [BooksService],
export default class BooksModule {}

Now, finally, this is the time to integrate everything with ‘app.module.ts’

import { Module } from '@nestjs/common';
import { AppController } from './app.controller';
import { AppService } from './app.service';
import { UserModule } from './User/user.module';
import { TypeOrmModule } from '@nestjs/typeorm';
import UserEntity from './db/entity/user.entity';
import BooksModule from './Books/books.module';
import GenreModule from './Genre/genre.module';
import BookEntity from './db/entity/book.entity';
import GenreEntity from './db/entity/genre.entity';

  imports: [UserModule ,
      [UserEntity, BookEntity , GenreEntity],

  controllers: [AppController],
  providers: [AppService],
export class AppModule {}

Business Development Programming

Software Development Life Cycle: Everything About SDLC

Software Development Life Cycle is the process that produces software with the lowest cost and highest quality in the shortest span of time. SDLC is a process that consists of a detailed plan describing all the details regarding how to develop, maintain, and replace/alter specific software. It is the methodology used to improve the quality of software and also improving the overall development process

We can say, SDLC or the Software Development Life Cycle is a process that produces software with the highest quality and lowest cost in the shortest time. SDLC includes a detailed plan for how to develop, alter, maintain, and replace a software system

Let’s understand now How SDLC works?

SDLC tries to improve the quality of software development and tries to shorten the production time, it also works on minimizing the cost of software development. SDLC achieves all these goals by creating a plan that removes all the pitfalls under software development projects.

Stages Of Software Development Programme

Following are the Stages of SDLC they ensure that the process is working in a smooth, efficient, and productive way:

1. Identify. The first step under the software development program is to identify the current problem. To ask a question “What don’t we want?” “What don’t we want?” This stage of SDLC means getting input from all stakeholders like customers, employees, programmers, etc.

2. Plan/Requirement. The next step under SDLC is to plan, it involves asking “What do we want?”. At this stage, the team defines the requirements of new software and also analyze the cost required for it.

It also details the risks involved and provides sub-plans for softening those risks. At this stage, a Software Requirement Specification document is created. Planning related to quality assurance and risks associated is also done at the initial stages. Various technical approaches are studied and followed to implement the project successfully.

Minimum risk is taken into consideration. The next step is to clearly define the product requirements. Later approval is taken from a customer or through market analysis. All this is generally done by using the SRS (Software Requirement Specification) document which holds all the requirements of the project and is designed and developed during the project life cycle.

3. Design. The next step under the Software Development Life Cycle is designing and answering “How will we get what we want?” This phase of SDLC includes changing the software specifications into a framework called Data Specification. Feedback and suggestions from all the stakeholders are then received.

It’s important to have a plan for collecting and incorporating stakeholder input into this document. Any loopholes at this stage will result in collapsing of the whole project. Generally, more than one design approach for the product architecture is offered and recorded in a DDS – Design Document Specification.

4.Build/Development. Now we will build what we have decided, answer to “Let’s create what we want.” All the actual coding is done at this stage of SDLC for building software. This is the least complicated step if all the previous steps have been followed with attention. Developers are required to follow the coding guidelines defined by their companies

Tools like compilers, interpreters, debuggers, etc. are used to generate the code. High-level programming languages such as C, Java, PHP, C++, Pascal are also used for coding. The programming language is chosen on the basis of the type of software being developed

5. Test. The next step under the Software Development Life Cycle is to Test “Did we get what we want?” At this stage, we test for defects and deficiencies. Later after detecting we try to fix all the issues until the product meets the actual specifications.

6. Deploy. “Let’s start using what we got.” This step involves feedback from mobile users, who are the end users. Depending on their feedback changes and adjustments are made. Often, this part of the SDLC process happens in a limited way at first. Depending on feedback from end users, more adjustments can be made. Software tested is released in the relevant market. Sometimes as per the requirements the product can be released in some specific market before final launch.

7. Maintain. Phases of Software Development life cycle includes another step that is to Maintain or like “Let’s get this closer to what we want.” It’s not so easy for the plan to turn out to be perfect when it runs in reality. Further, as real life conditions are different, we need to advance and update the software. After the product is released in the market, its maintenance is done for the existing customer base.

Software Development Life Cycle
Software Development Life Cycle


Now let’s discuss different software development life cycle Models. These are also known as Software Development Process Models. Each model follows unique steps in the process of software development.

Following are some major SDLC models which are followed in the Industry:

  • Waterfall Model
  • Iterative Model
  • Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • Big Bang Model

1.Waterfall Model

Waterfall Model was the first SDLC Model used in Software Engineering which confirms the success of the project. In this Model whole framework of software development is divided into different phases. The result of one phase acts as the input of the next phase sequentially.

The following illustration is a representation of the different phases of the Waterfall Model:

Requirement Gathering and analysis 

System Design 


Integration and Testing 

Deployment of system 


Waterfall Model
Waterfall Model

Waterfall Model – Application

Every Software developed is unique and it requires the most appropriate SDLC approach based on different external and internal factors. Some examples where the use of Waterfall model is most suitable are −

  • Well documented clear and fixed requirements.
  • Stable product definition.
  • Stage Technology
  • No ambiguous requirements.
  • Adequate resources.
  • Short Project.

2.Iterative Model

This model begins with the most simple implementation of a subset of the requirements of the software and later enhances all the evolving versions until the full system is implemented. Design Modifications are made at each iteration, and simultaneously new functional capabilities are added. This method tries to develop a system through repeated cycles in small time.

Iterative Model
Iterative Model

Iterative Model Application

This model is most often used in the following situations −

  • Clearly defined and understood requirements.
  • Some functionalities or requested enhancements may evolve with time.
  • Time available to the market constraint.
  • Development team aware of new opportunities.
  • Some high-risk features and goals which may change in the near future.

3.Spiral Model

This model tries to combine the idea of systematic aspects of iterative development. This model is the combination of the iterative development process and the sequential linear development model. This model puts a very high emphasis on risk analysis.

Spiral Model
Spiral Model

Spiral Model Design

Identification, Design, Construct or Build, Evaluation and Risk Analysis.

Spiral Model Application

  • Budget Constraints and risk involved.
  • Medium to High-Risk projects.
  • Potential changes to economic factors.
  • Uncertainty in the customer requirements.
  • Complex requirements.


The V-model is an SDLC model where the processing of all the steps happens in a sequential manner typically in V-shape. This model is also known as the Verification and Validation model.

This model is actually the extension of the waterfall model. Each phase in the development cycle is directly associated with the testing phase. This model is highly disciplined and the next phases start only after the previous stage gets completed.

V- Model Application

This model is somewhat the same as the waterfall model. The waterfall model too is a sequential type. In order to get successful results, the requirements of the project should be clearly discussed as it would be very expensive to restart the project from very initial phases.

Most suitable scenarios to use the V-Model application are where:

  • Requirements are well defined, clearly documented and fixed.
  • Stable product definition.
  • Not so Dynamic technology.
  • No ambiguous or undefined requirements.
  • Short Project.

5.The Big Bang Model

Here in this model, we do not follow any specific process. The development process starts with the required funds and efforts as inputs, and the output is software developed, which may or may not be as per the requirements of the customers. Very little planning is required for this software development model as it does not follow any specific procedure and process. Usually, this model is followed for small projects where the development teams are very small.

Big Bang Model Design and Application

The Big Bang Model includes focusing all the resources in coding and software development, where little or no planning is required. The requirements are implemented as they appear. Any changes done will not affect the whole project. This model is good for small, academic or practice projects. It is also good for projects where one or two developers are working together. It is also ideal to use in the situation where the release date is not confirmed.


Big Bang Model
Big Bang Model

Every iteration involves cross-functional teams working simultaneously on various areas like −

  • Planning
  • Requirements Analysis
  • Design
  • Coding
  • Unit Testing and
  • Acceptance Testing.

Benefits Of SDLC

The highest level of management control and documentation can be achieved by doing SDLC correctly. It helps developers to understand what they should build and why. All the associated parties get involved and agree upon common goals and can get a clear plan for achieving that goal. It also helps all the parties involved in understanding all the costs and resources required.

But If the firm fails to consider and analyze the proper needs of all the customers and the users like stakeholders, it can result in a poor understanding of the system requirements at the outset. The benefits of SDLC only be achieved if the plan is created and followed correctly.

Career Development Programming Python

Top 30 Python Interview Questions 2019

Here we bring you some top questions that can be asked during the Python interview. If you are preparing for an interview in 2019-2020, then it is a great chance that you might be get selected if you read all these questions and Answers.

1. What do you mean by python?

Answer:  Python is a general-purpose and high- level programming language that was designed by Guido Van Rossum ( a Dutch programmer known as the best author for python language) in 1991. It has an object-oriented strategy that aims to help the programmers write clear and logical codes for various projects. It is generally used in software development, System Scripting, Mathematics, Web development, etc.

2. What is PEP 8 in Python?

Answer: PEP 8 is described as a document that assists us in providing guidance on how to write the Python code. Guido van Rossum, Barry Warsaw, and Nick Coghlan published it in 2001.

It stands for the Python Enhancement Proposal, and its main task is to improve Python code readability and reliability.

3. Explain Dynamic typed Language?

Answer: We must think about what typing is before we know what a dynamically typed language is. Typing refers to programming language type checking. “1” + 2 would result in a type error in a strongly typed language such as Python, as these languages do not permit “type-coercion” (implicit conversion of data types). On the other hand, a language that is weakly typed, like Javascript, will be simple.

Type verification can be done in two stages

Static– Data types are checked prior to execution.

Dynamic– Data types during execution are tested.

Since Python is an interpreted language, each statement line by line is executed and therefore type-checking is done on the fly during execution. Therefore, Python is a language that is dynamically typed.

4. Explain Scope in Python?

Answer: Every Python object works within a Scope. A scope is a block of code that remains relevant to an object in Python. Namespaces define all objects within a program in a unique way. Such namespaces, however, also have a fixed scope for them to use their objects without any prefix. The following are a few examples of the context generated in Python during code execution:

  • A local Scope is defined as local objects present in the current function
  • A module-level Scope is defined as global objects of current function accessible in the program.
  • A global Scope is defined as the objects that are accessible since the execution of this program.
  • An Outermost scope is defined as the objects that are searched last to find the name referenced. And it includes all the built-in names that are callable in the program

5. What do you mean by [::-1] in python?

Answer: [: -1 ] is used to reverse the array or sequence order.

For instance:

import array as arr

Output: array(‘i’, [5, 4, 3, 2, 1])

6. Define the negative indexes and why are they used?

Answer: The Python sequences are indexed and consist of both positive and negative numbers. The positive numbers include ‘ 0 ‘ which is used as the first index and ‘ 1 ‘ as the second index, and this is how the process goes on.

The negative number index ends with ‘-1‘ being the last index in the sequence and ‘-2’ as the penultimate index and the series carries forward as the positive number.

The negative index is also used to denote the index to be represented in the right order.

7. Differentiate between xrange and range in Python?

Answer: The functionality of xrange() and range() is quite different. both generate an integers string, with the only difference being that range returns a Python array, while xrange() returns an xrange() object.

So, does it make any difference? It definitely does, since xrange() does not produce a static list unlike range(), it generates the value on the go. Typically, this technique is used with an object type generator and known as ‘Yielding’.

In systems where memory is a constraint, yielding is necessary. In such conditions, constructing a static list as in range() can result in a Memory Error, while xrange() can handle it optimally by using just enough generator memory (significantly less compared to the generator).

xrange() can be illustrated with python2 and not with python3.

 Let’s look at an example:

for i in xrange(10):    # numbers from o to 9
    print (i)       # output => 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

for i in xrange(1,10):    # numbers from 1 to 9
    print (i)       # output => 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

for i in xrange(1, 10, 2):    # skip by two for next
    print (i)       # output => 1 3 5 7 9

8. Define the use of the break statement?

Answer: We will understand this with the help of a flow chart

even = [2,4,6,8,10,11,12,14]  
odd = 0  
for val in even:  
    if val%2!=0:  
        odd = val  
print("Odd value found ",odd)  







Odd value found 11

9. What is the use of Split in python?

Answer: This is used to separate a given string in the python.

For example :

a= “Codersera python”

OUTPUT : [‘Codersera’ , ‘python’]

10. What is Encapsulation?

Answer: Encapsulation means that the code and the data are bound together. A Python class is an example of encapsulation.

11. Define data abstraction?

Answer: Data Abstraction contains only the necessary details and hides the world’s implementation. It can be attained by using interfaces and abstract classes in python too.

12. Explain Python decorator?

Answer: Decorators are very powerful and useful tools in Python that allow programmers to change the behavior of any class or function. It allows us to wrap up another function in order to extend the behavior of the wrapped function without permanently modifying it.

Basically, a decorator takes in a function, adds some functionality and returns it.


def make_pretty(func):
    def inner():
        print("I got decorated")
    return inner

def ordinary():
    print("I am ordinary")

13. Define namespaces in python?

Answer: A Namespace is defined as a system that is used to control the names in a program. This avoids the duplication and leads to the uniqueness of names in a program.

A namespace is a basic idea for structuring and organizing software that is more useful in large projects. However, if you are new to programming, it could be a bit difficult concept to grasp. Therefore, we tried to make namespaces a little easier to understand.

14. Define Slicing in Python?

Answer: Slicing is a method used to pick a range of items such as array, tuple, and string from the sequence type. Using slice way, it’s helpful and simple to get elements from a set. It requires a: (colon) separating the field index start and end.

All the List or tuple forms of data collection allow us to use slicing to collect items. While we can obtain elements by defining an index, we only obtain a single element, whereas we can obtain a collection of elements by slicing.

15. What is PHYTHONPATH?

Answer: PYTHONPATH is a variable environment that can be configured to add additional directories where Python is looking for modules and packages. This is especially useful in keeping Python libraries that you don’t want to download in the default global place.

16. Define docstring in Python?

Answer: Documentation string or docstring is a multiline string that is used to document a particular segment of code.

The docstring must explain the work of method and function.

17. What does len() do?

Answer: ‘len()’ is used to measure the length of a string, an array a list, etc.

For example:


18. Name the built-in types of python?


  • Boolean
  • Built-in function
  • Integers
  • Floating point
  • Strings
  • Complex numbers

19. What do you mean by ‘pass’ in python?

Answer: Pass defines an operation-free Python expression. In a complex phrase, it’s a placeholder. This code allows transferring the control without error if we want to create an empty class or function.

For example:

mutex = True
if (mutex == True) : 
else : 

20. Define the use of help() and dir() function?

Answer: The functions Help() and dir() are accessible from the Python interpreter and are used to view a compiled function dump.

Help() function: The help() function is used to view the documentation string and also helps us to see the file, keyword, and attribute-related support.

Dir() function: to show the specified symbols, the dir() function is used.

21. What do you mean by Iterators in python?

Answer: In python, Iterators, like a list, is used to iterate a set of elements. Iterator is a process of collection of objects, and that can be a list, a tuple, or a dictionary. To iterate the stored elements, Python iterator implements _itr_  and the next() method. We normally use loops in Python to iterate over the collections (list, tuple).

22. How you can create a Unicode string in python?

Answer. In Python 3, the old Unicode type has replaced by “str” type, and the string is treated as Unicode by default. We can make a string in Unicode by using art.title.encode (“utf-8”) function.

23. Define the Functions in python?

Answer: A Function is a block of code that is executed only when it is called. The def keyword is used to define the Python function.

For example

def Newfunc():
print("Hi, Welcome to Codersera”)
Newfunc(); #calling the function

Output: Hi, Welcome to Codersera.

24. Differentiate between pickling and unpickling in python?

Answer: Pickle module accepts and transforms any Python object into a string representation and dumps it into a file using the dump function, this process is called pickling. While the method of retrieving original Python objects from the stored string representation is called unpickling.

25. Define generators?

Answer: Generators are functions that return an iterable array of items.

26. How to Capitalize the first letter of string?

Answer: The capitalize() method in Python capitalizes a string’s first character. If at the end of the string is already a capital letter, then it returns the initial string.

27. Differentiate between python 2.0 and python 3.0?

Answer: Python 2.x is Python’s older version. The new and updated version of Python 3.x. Python 2.x is now heritage. Python 3.x is the language’s present and future.

The Print statement (function) is the most visible difference between Python2 and Python3. It looks like “Hello” in Python 2, and it’s written in Python 3 (“Hello”).

String in Python2 is ASCII implicitly, and in Python3 it is Unicode.

28. What is the output of [‘!!Welcome!!’]*2?

Answer: The output would be [‘!!Welcome!! ‘, ‘!!Welcome!!’]

29. How to write comments in Python?

Answer: Comments start with a # character in Python. Additionally, however, comments are sometimes made using docstrings (strings enclosed in triple quotes).

#Comments in Python start like this
print("Comments in Python start with a #")

Output:  Comments in Python start with a #

30. How will you import modules in Python?

Answer: Modules would be imported with import keyword. Let us look at the coding

import array           #importing using the original module name
import array as arr    # importing using an alias name
from array import *    #imports everything present in the array  module

Read about this also

Backend Developer Development Programming Startup

Is Ruby On Rails Still Worth Learning In 2020?

Ruby on Rails is a web application framework written in Ruby under the MIT lisense. Rails works on MVC, (Model View Controller) structure, bestowing default structure for a database and web pages. 

The initial release of Ruby on rails was on 13 December 2005 and in its initial years, it greatly affected the web app development through new features that comprise Seamless database table creation, a scaffolding of views to allow the rapid application development.

ROR or Ruby on Rails is older and mature technology to use but in the last couple of years, it has been facing a difficult time as many new technologies came over by taking over this sector. Some people say Rails is dead and it isn’t worth it but here we are going to see why it’s worth learning in 2020.

Where Has ROR Been The Best

Rails have been the talk of the town and it is quite an old language. There are a few reasons that make the Rails best and really tough to compete. So, we would be looking for those reasons.

Simpler business logic Execution

ROR has a simple and fast process of implementation for difficult business logic. For example, you need API for your application at the earliest so you can ask the developer. Rails developers can develop it really fast. You have to put the front- end framework like React and Vue and you are done.

Huge Collection of Gems

Ruby has a huge collection of gems created by its developers. They act as a bridge to fill in the gap left in web apps and their services. And the best thing about them is that they are free for commercial use. And the minor things that might be left by the development team can be cleared with the help of these.

Ruby collection has made it really easier for developers to use it. It is like a readymade gem for developers when they get stuck at developing some features but they have it sorted with gems.

There are various companies that use Ruby on Rails in their products and apps that we would be discussing later.

Rapid development Process

Rails or ROR is known for its fast development process. Developers use Ruby on Rails to develop a project for its quick nature and creating a project with Rails is quite easy.

There is a difference of 40 to 45% in terms of speed in creating a project with ROR instead of Stacks. In layman terms, if a developer uses Stacks for developing a project then it will take 40% extra time than Rails.

Various types of apps which are developed using Ruby on Rails

We would be mentioning 6 well-known apps that are developed with ROR. These are widely known and you might be using these on a daily basis.


It is a type of business organizer curated by David Hansson who is the creator of Ruby on Rails and his team members. We use Slack and other apps like Asana that are tough competitors of Basecamp. Recently, Basecamp has 2.5 million users and is a good alternative app and developed through ROR.


Shopify is an E-commerce platform that gives potential entrepreneurs a platform to start a business. And with this, it enables you to use the payment integration method, managing content, domain name generator, and everything that you need to start an online business. Half a Million plus merchants are using the Shopify platform and it is able to generate $40 billion in GMV. Shopify was developed and launched after 2 months through Ruby on Rails. For potential entrepreneurs, Shopify is a great source to launch a business as it provides everything you need for a business.


Airbnb, Inc. is an online marketplace for arranging or offering lodging, primarily homestays, or tourism experiences. The number of people who use Airbnb for their travel stay is increasing rapidly. It has a total of 150 million+ users out of which 500k people use it to stay at nights. Airbnb was also created by ruby on rails and one of the best and popular services that use this framework.


Almost every freelancer knows this website but only a few people know that it was also created on ruby on rails. You can get a service or hire someone or you can also give a service starting from $5 and went up to $200. You can get every type of services from graphics to logo to webpage designing. It covers almost everything. It is also one of the popular services that use this framework. If you are a remote developer you can also register at our website.


Github is a popular service used by almost 26 million people. It is an app created on ruby on rails and it is used for bug tracking, task management and other features for developers.


It is developed on ruby on rails and it specializes in data analysis, trading services, and news. These services are the vital revenue-generating services of Bloomberg. And like others, it is also a popular service that uses this framework.

Consider Ruby On Rails For These Projects

Like we have discussed before, there are various apps you can develop with Ruby on Rails and now we will discuss some projects that are good to go with Ruby on Rails.

Fast prototyping

Ruby on Rails allowed companies to build in no time a small application or an MVP. The fast development process allows the early acquisition of more customers, resulting in quicker and more efficient device monetization. Developing an MVP will show you what are the needs of your customer and what is your focus. Feature and some usabilities can be created really quick with ROR.


E-commerce is trending and people use e-commerce to expand their business. E-commerce provides them all the necessary things and the best example is Shopify. Ruby on Rails has gems for your every problem which enhances the business and tries to bridge the gap. Spree commerce is an alternative to ROR e-commerce.

Data solutions

Ruby on rails has a tremendous framework for new and advanced startup models. The software has an outstanding Object Relational Mapping, called ActiveRecord, allowing developers to navigate database quickly without using SQL. In addition, Ruby on Rails can easily integrate such as PostgreSQL with Database Management Systems.

Fluctuating concept

Ruby on rails believes in the concept of go with the flow which means that you need not plan everything beforehand. As the process goes, everything will go accordingly and ROR is famous for this thing that you never know what it has for you. You can add on the things while moving ahead. That’s why it is known as a fluctuating concept which means it has nothing fixed or planned.

Content Services

There are so many good, SEO-friendly tools for developing and maintaining content in the Ruby on Rails ecosystem. Perhaps a website based on content would be right up your alley? If so, make sure Jekyll gets a shot.

The question that arises is there any chance that learning ROR would be worth it. why this question arises so I would like to mention some drawbacks where ROR lacks its importance over the years.

Few Shortcomings of Ruby on Rails

Operational speed

It must be noted-Rails are not on edge in speed. If you need fast processing speed and low resource usage on the server, then Ruby on Rails is definitely not the way to go. Keep in mind, of course, that this is an edge case, and you don’t really need that much pace in most projects, particularly if you’re developing a startup or MVP. If you don’t expect hundreds of millions.

Ruby language

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning is the hottest technology these days. Many modern apps offer some sort of ML integration to help users with tedious tasks or even automate some jobs by literally substituting software for jobs and staff.

It’s a shame that the language of Ruby is bad at this, to put it simply. Python is the best technology, not to mention that it is one of the world’s most popular programming languages and is much faster than Ruby. Even Java is considered to be one of the job’s best technologies. Unfortunately, machine learning is another major trend not followed by our beloved language, mainly due to the lack of libraries needed.

Less creativity left for the developers

If you’re familiar with the design of Ruby on Rails then you probably know it’s known to be a very thought-out one. It only allows you to create your app the way Rails “wants” you too. While this function has a lot to do with it, the creation of an unusual application may be a pain. There is a lot of default modules that may not leave sufficient room for the development of developers.

Wrapping up

Ruby on Rails has latest version is 6.0.1 that is released on this 5 November 2019 and ROR has been working on its advancements from the early 2000s. And being a matured technology, there is a lot more left to learn about this technology and many startups are using this ROR. Ruby on Rails ‘ recent and upcoming releases sound very promising. Many of the concerns from users have been addressed, each new version adds new exciting features.

Hopefully in the near future, both Ruby and Rails will rise again.  So we can not say that it is obsolete and ROR is dead. If you make full use of the potential of Ruby on Rails, you will be able to develop sophisticated applications in no time. And one should not forget that ROR has massive gems which many new technologies doesn’t have. So, in my opinion, it is still worth it to learn RUBY ON RAILS in 2020. There are many scopes that are still left to utilize. And if we talk about paychecks according to data of, ruby on rails developer in the USA gets the highest salary. And after that python developer, javascript developer, Clojure developer, java developer, Nodejs developer in that order.

Business Development Startup

8 Major Legal Risks Faced by Startups

Startups are not as fancy as they look’

Startups can be a rollercoaster ride for entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs encounter many risks in their journey of Startups but the legal risks are something that can not be avoided and should be taken seriously. Here, we are trying to get an overview of the legal risks that are faced by Startups.

The Startup word itself looks very appealing. And for the millennials, it is a way to get the life of their dreams but the amount of hard work, patience and planning one has to put in is the key factor. Besides, the challenges and risks which one should be aware of.

As the millennial generation is much more attracted to the startups but Startups can look fancy from far. But when a person actually puts in the hard work then he/she understands the practicality, uncertainty, and the risk involved. The risks can be a financial risk, legal risks and many more but here we are only focusing on Legal risks that are faced by Startups. These risks can be eliminated with proper strategy and planning. And if proper actions are taken the risk can be reduced if not properly eliminated.

Let’s find the Major legal difficulties faced by Startups.

1. Proper Documentation

The first and foremost thing for any startup is to have documents in an organized manner. If you decide to do a venture, the documents, and other formalities are not properly done then your startup will become null and void.

For instance during an agreement you are unable to present complete documents then you are liable to pay the penalties which is not good for your business.

2. Legal composition of Business

This is a vital risk that should be avoided to run a business and the foremost thing to be stressed upon. The composition or ownership of any business is very important. The tax responsibility of any firm and the personal liability of the owner can be done with ease with the legal funding options. It will help in saving the tax and personal interests of the owners.

3. No forgery of website T&C (Terms and Conditions)

For any online business or E-commerce, it is essential to have terms and conditions posted on the website as per many countries laws. There are many agencies like The ACCC ( Australian Competition and consumer protection) works for the public welfare. The ACCC believes in Transparency, accountability, Confidentiality, Proportionality. And there should not be plagiarism meaning no business can copy another company’s T&C. Plagiarism of terms and conditions is much worse than not having at all. If this happens then it may cause a legal risk that will negatively affect the business.

4. Legitimate Licenses

Every business has some legal rules and regulations. And to do the business hassle-free there are some permits and licenses that should be taken by the owner. And that too a real license if the license is not legitimate, then the owner is in a position to pay a hefty amount which may cause losses to the startup.  So to avoid this type of legal risk owner should consider the appropriate professionals who have a clear view of the types of licenses and permits which should be taken to run the company successfully.

5. Disputes and Discrimination

In any organization, disputes among the staff are quite normal but disputes caused by partners, stakeholders, and customers. These disputes will take up a bad face and the consequences have to bear by the business which is also a legal risk.

Discrimination by age, color, or gender is a growing problem in organizations. But the law says “if any worker who feels that he/she is being dominated by anybody can give an application to the Fair work Commission for resolution of the situation”. This anti-discrimination law is to make a fair decision in favor of the workers who are been bullied by higher authority. That also becomes a legal dispute and the authorities should keep that in mind to avoid this type of situation by listening to the problems of workers and bring a solution in a fair and impartial way.

6. Accidents in the workplace

Sometimes workers, work in a workplace and met with an accident that can cause grievance injury to them. They can file a legal case against the company or can ask for compensation which is a legal risk for the firm. So to avoid or lessen this type of situation a company must have a safety team and system who will keep a check on both the workers as well as the machines.

7. Protect Intellectual property rights

Intellectual property rights are those rights which can be taken for newly invented thing discovered by you. and these rights will shield your discovery. The discovery can be a product, a brand name, a logo, a recipe anything. So the copyright is to be used to get the right or ownership of any content to safeguard your work and prevent it from copying or stealing. This is also a legal risk and to prevent this make sure you patent and secure your product so no one can copy it.

8. No agreement of shareholder

A shareholders agreement should essentially be the cornerstone of any business or startup venture between founders and partners. There must be proper documentation of the agreement of shareholders to avoid the conflict between the partners. 

Furthermore, a shareholder’s agreement acts as a protection between partners, if problematic situations arise and it is seen to be more efficient as co-founders will spend less time debating, arguing and litigating when in difficult situations as they have the agreement to refer back to.

Ignoring the need for a shareholders agreement creates a larger risk because as with any business, problems may arise between the partners especially in startups and it is necessary to have a balance and clues to those situations to act as an effective guidance mechanism on what to do in those circumstances.

Let’s take a case study which will clear everything about the legal risks

In 2014, a developer developed an app that is a quiz app and inference has been taken from an app that is developed by Cambridge Analytica. The name of the developer is Aleksandr Kogan. He got 27000 installations to his app from users. He could manage to access the data of his friends and when the app asked for grant permissions that app saved all the information. This information created 30 million psychographic voters profile. And Trump tie-ups were already in Cambridge Analytica and this information was used to target ads for a campaign like Brexit.  As news spread in the market facebook share instantly fell to 18% in 10 days and people in aggression start #deletefacebook movement. So this case study shows that if legal professionals saw that earlier then this situation can be avoided.


In a journey of startups, Entrepreneurs must look into the legal risks that may pose some threat to company issues. Or they can personally hire legal professionals who will look into this matter closely. These professionals will tell the precautions that should be taken to avoid these risks. And there is no doubt that any startup will lead to millennials are keen towards the startups. So these types of hurdles should not create any problem and must be eliminated so that a business can run smoothly.